Awesome Tax Advantages of a Home Business!

You may be surprised at the amount of daily items that can be deducted as a business expense once you have a business in your home. The usually business expenses are the obvious deductions but even some household expenses can be deductions. You should always check with your tax preparer to be certain of the laws in your state but in this article I have mentioned many of the deductions that are legal in most areas.

The most obvious deductions are business expenses. Anything related to your business, if you have a business portfolio, introductory product pack, or monthly product purchase these are all tax deductions. Only the purchases that are required in order to get paid qualify for deduction in most states. If you have an office area in your home you can deduct internet and phone if they are needed for your business, part of the expenses of your rent (mortgage is figured elsewhere), part of your power, water, sewer, garbage & etc. as business expenses. In most states you can also deduct your insurance as long as your office is in your home. Home repair bills and the cost of a cleaning service are also deductions.

Included with business expenses would be anything to do with advertising such as business cards, t-shirts, ads, fliers, literature and anything else you may use for advertising. Training items for you are also a deduction; books, CDs, seminars and reports etc. Be sure to save receipts to prove your expenses here! You can also deduct things that your kids might help with if you pay them by check and keep records, you can deduct landscaping, maintenance such as taking out the garbage, computer work, cleaning, stuffing envelopes and any other business related expenses. Remember to keep receipts for all office supplies such as paper, pens, printer ink, office furniture, cell phone (if you use it for business), postage, extra email accounts, web hosting, computer etc.

Any business related travel or any travel in which you conduct some business can be a deduction. Plan ahead to make all travel business related. Even if you stay with family you can give them a gift of products or even money and this can be a tax deduction as long as it does not exceed the going rate for hotels in the area. Business meals are good deductions, if you meet a prospective client for a meal or coffee, or if you meet with your business partners to discuss business. Mileage is another great deduction, the IRS has mileage rates that they allow, mileage to and from meetings and trainings, and for advertising, are deductible. You do need to keep a log to prove this, but it does not have to be fancy. Just a small note book that you can make a note in each time you drive is good enough and will save you quite a bit of money for a little effort.

If you are doing pretty well and are looking for other things to count as deductions on your taxes you may want to consider 401Ks, college tuition, car lease options, charitable donations, and education savings accounts for children/grandchildren. There are many ways that you can save on taxes and you will want to use only the ones that are legal in your area and benefit you the most.

Maybe now you are thinking about the major things that you might consider as a deduction. Please do not use this as your sole guide. Your tax preparer and local laws should be the final deciding factor on deductions for your home business. Hopefully this has opened your eyes to the potential for deductions and you will be able to ask the right questions and provide the proper information to get the maximum deductions you deserve. If you plan ahead many of your everyday expenses can be a tax deduction when you have a business in your home. Record keeping is very important when you are documenting tax deductions. You don’t want to be caught with no records!

Annette Phillips has experience in a variety of areas and has been successful in supporting her family from home for 18 years while enjoying all that life has to offer. Visit this website for more information on making money at home: http://www.ipcgold.com/ad/44/CD48981

Broughty Castle, Dundee, Scotland
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The view from the beach

I was brought up nearby to Broughty Ferry, and was always aware of its fairly wee but very imposing Castle. Yet I had never really paid it any great attention until last week, when making a brief nostalgic detour into the area, in order to show my 8 year old grandson the places I used to frequent when I was his age before moving to Inverness (50 years ago!) and where his mum and her sisters used to play when we visited my cousin (who lived right opposite the Castle then) on family holidays.

Perhaps it was the unseasonably gorgeous weather, or the fact that we had a wee while free time, or the fact that for the first time in that area I had cameras with me, I do not know – but I have never seen the Castle looking so photogenic! I must also admit that I went inside, for the first time ever – it is maintained by Historic Scotland and the museum within is run by Dundee City council. Admission is FREE! It is well worth a visit, but the spiral staircase is hard work!

Broughty Ferry (Gaelic: Bruach Tatha, Scots: Brochtie) is a suburb on the eastern side of the City of Dundee, on the shore of the Firth of Tay in eastern Scotland. "The Ferry" was formerly an independent burgh from 1864 until it was absorbed into the Royal Burgh of Dundee in 1913.

Indeed the Burgh’s small police force (prior to absorption into Dundee City Police) had Broughty Castle as the centrepiece of its cap badge.

Broughty Ferry became a popular suburb of Dundee when the Jute barons (jute being big business in Dundee) in the 19th Century) built their mansions there, and the mill workers made great use of the sandy beaches which run from the Castle right down to Monifieth (my former home town) and beyond.

Broughty Castle was built in 1496, on the site of earlier fortifications, and provided an ideal location to watch over the Firth of Tay at its brief narrowing before it widens out again on the approach to Dundee, which was ever a strategic port.

In 1846 the castle was bought by the Edinburgh and Northern Railway Company in order to build an adjacent harbour for their railway ferry (before being rendered obsolete by the building of the Tay Bridge a few miles upstream).

In 1855 the castle was acquired by the War Office with the intention of using it to defend the harbour from the Russians. In 1860 renewed fears of a French invasion led the War Office to rebuild and fortify the site. The walls of the main courtyard were rebuilt and new wing and courtyard were added to the tower. A caponier was added along the south-east side of the courtyard. Emplacements for nine large guns were also constructed. A small enclosure on the west side of the courtyard was also built.

From 1886 to 1887 a range was built to house submarine miners to the east of the castle. In an emergency these would lay mines in the Tay Estuary to damage enemy shipping. In 1889–1891 a magazine was built within the western enclosure which also led to a major remodelling of the gun emplacements. The castle remained in military use until 1932, and again between 1939 and 1949. The last defence-related alteration was made in the Second World War when a defence post was built within the top of the main tower. In 1969 the castle opened as a museum

Visitors to the Castle can climb up the spiral staircases to the Observation Post, where binoculars are provided – well worth the climb, I can assure you! The views up and down the Tay, and over Fife, are magnificent – albeit the very weathered glazing prevents decent photographs from up there. As Arnie said “I’ll be back!”


Home Alone with Your Own Home Business

You’re on your own. You’ve made the move to run your own home business.

It’s all up to you now to make sure your enterprise is a success. Any support you had in your previous work life, from management, co-workers, and human resources departments are gone. You are in charge. You wake up each morning to a home business that’s waiting for you right outside your bedroom door.

Assuming the setup is complete and you are in operation mode, what’s next? What do you do to keep your business on track on a day-to-day basis?

Here are a few suggestions to keep the cogs moving in your own home-based business.

Seven Steps to a Smooth Running Home Business

1. Set a work schedule: have a plan for what work you need to do and when. Include time for trips to the post office, stationery store, suppliers’ places of business and the like. It’s all part of your business and needs scheduling accordingly. Remember the old business school maxim: “Plan your work, and work your plan”.

2. Set a ‘play’ schedule: You have to know when to stop working. Let your spouse know you’re still the person they married; not a tenant occupying a workspace. Your home-based business will be better for it if you have a proper work-life balance.

3. Have necessary resources at the ready: This is associated with planning. When you begin your work day have everything you need at your fingertips. Don’t find yourself scurrying like a neurotic squirrel to find what you need to meet a deadline.

4. Keep accurate records: Accurate and up-to-date information about your home business’s performance are of great importance. Accurate records tell you if you’re making a profit or not. The tax man needs them too. If you do your own bookkeeping, that’s great. If not, pay someone a couple of hours a month to keep your records up-to-date.

5. Have a proper workspace: A home-based business means a workshop, office, or both. Ensure these spaces are clean, uncluttered and bright. You will be spending a lot of time in your workshop or office; you want them filled with as much natural light as possible. It’s conducive to productivity and a good attitude

6. Keep up-to-date: As you spend time inside, working your home business, you need to look outside once in awhile. Outside, as in, “what’s going on in my business sector?” Are you a bookkeeper working from a home office? Are there any new bookkeeping services in your region? Is there a bookkeepers’ networking chapter in your city? Do you create products from home? Is there a trade show coming up that would be suited to your goods?

7. Continue to learn: Whatever your business is, continue educating yourself on advances in your chosen field. Do you do graphic design, accounting, or writing from home? What new trends are happening in these sectors? What new software will offer the best service to your customers? What innovations are happening in a particular field that you need to learn?

Today, working from home can be the fulfillment of your career dreams. You have the ability and resources to make it happen. You will remain a going concern if you concern yourself with the above suggestions. Implement them to enhance the likelihood that you will be in the percentage that ‘makes it’ in a home business.

Tom McMullen writes articles about home business. You can find more of his articles at:


Pie for Pi Day, 2011
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Image by djwtwo
March 14th is Pi Day (3.14, get it?), and being a big ol’ geek who loves to bake, I celebrate with some Pi Pies. Two of these will get turned into entries in the annual Serious Eats Pi Day baking competetion (along with a whole slew of how-to/making-of pictures), but they’re all to share. As it happens, March 14th is also my employment anniversary, at a company whose business involves lots of math–it’s right there in the name, in fact–so some of these will make it into the office, one is heading to my daughters’ school for their teachers, and we’ll have a little bit at home.

I’ll most likely be posting pics and recipes of most of these over the next few days, as I have time. Since two of them were made for the baking contest, recipes and instructions are up over at www.instructables.com

Peach-Mango Pie with a Lattice Crust
Maple-Pecan (Approximately) Pie

(2012’s pies are here.)

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Home Business Owners Working in the Garden

It is getting towards that time again when the days are longer, the weather is brighter and warmer, and we can hopefully enjoy some sun in the garden, between the rain showers. These showers have been far and few this year and we have been spoilt by the regular sunshine. This is a great time of year for the home business owners, because it means we can get outside and enjoy some fresh air when we need a break.

Running a business from home can be very isolating, because you are constantly at home working, and you often have no need to go out at all. You can certainly get exercise without going outdoors, thanks to things like exercise bikes and now the Wii as well, but there is no substitute for getting some fresh air on a daily basis. It does your mind and body the world of good to spend some time in the garden.

Fortunately with today’s technology we can enjoy working outdoors easier than we would have been able to in the past. For example if you have a laptop and Wi-Fi you can go outside in the garden, and work on battery power for a few hours. Provided you are sitting in the shade you can do so perfectly easily and have the convenience of the internet to use as well.

A lot depends on the type of work you do of course, but most computer based work can easily be done outside if you have Wi-Fi installed in your home. You may not want to spend all day out in the garden, but you can enjoy having a few hours outside when it is the right temperature. Not too hot and not too cold. Apart from anything else you will get some sun and fresh air, and also a change of scenery. This alone is good for your health as working in your home office all the time can be very tiring, repetitive and dull.

One thing you do have to be careful of however is that you can end up being distracted from what needs to be done. Your neighbour might think you are relaxing and pop over for a coffee when you really need to be getting some work done. You might end up sunbathing when you have a deadline to meet. Alternatively you might find those weeds in your flowerbeds a bit of a distraction, and you might have to pull those out before you do anything else. If you tend to be a bit like this you have to be aware of the possibility that you will end up getting less done if you leave your home office.

If it suits you to work outside for an hour or two in the morning before coming back indoors again, try it out. Alternatively you might want to get plenty done in the early hours of the day before enjoying some of the afternoon sunshine instead. If the bulk of your work is done before you head outside, you can relax a bit more and still get something else done at the same time.

So consider the outdoors this summer, make the garden your office and enjoy the weather whilst it lasts!

Numbers And Finance
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Image by reynermedia
Feel free to use this image, just link to www.SeniorLiving.Org This microstock required lots of post processing to get the blue tint. I also needed a bounce card to get more detail in the glasses.

How To Set Up A Business At Home & Office Tour- www.athomewithnikki.com

In this video I show you how I transform a closet into my home business office space.

Here is the link to my original video where I show you how I set up my mobile office on my other channel “At Home With Nikki”: http://youtu.be/i2J9pZlDZrg

Here is my video on my other channel “At Home With Nikki” where I show you how to build the closet desk I showed in this video: http://youtu.be/xFgOt93XzHY

Here is my video on how my business planner is organized: http://youtu.be/2NfavnsVgW8

If you are interested in purchasing any of the stylus’s seen in this video from my company Nikris Designs you can go to the website at: http://www.NikrisDesigns.com to order.

If you are interested in the framed peg boards that my husband makes and sell you can check it out at his etsy shop at:

MY BLOG: http://www.athomewithnikki.com
PLEASE BE SUBSCRIBE TO MY SHOP BUSINESS YOUTUBE PAGE AT: http://www.youtube.com/nikrisdesigns

Royalty Free Music by http://audiomicro.com/royalty-free-music

Po Box 51635
Summerville, SC 29485

I am a Fullscreen Network Youtube Partner. Fullscreen is ranked as one of the TOP 3 YouTube Networks. If you would like to apply to be a part of the Fullscreen family, then you can go to the following link or if you have any questions please feel free to send me a personal message:


Numbers And Finance

Operating A Home Business

If you have been in the business world, the transition from going to work in an office every day to operating a home business may be quite astounding. After all, you are used to getting up in the morning, dressing and heading into a building to work and now you have no time clock to punch. Although that is a good thing for many, others may find the transition quite difficult and see it as a reason to sleep in rather than get up early.

Of course, you are not going to get up as early as you did when you had to drive to work but you still need to develop a schedule for yourself. Another transition that may be difficult is that of making certain that friends and family members understand you are still working and are not free to run their errands, babysit their children or go shopping with them during your working hours.

That does not mean that you can not go out to lunch on occasion because even with a home business, you will take time out for lunch and a break from working. What you do not want to do is get into the habit of doing more relaxing than working during the day or you will find yourself seeming to work twenty four hours a day trying to do what you should have done earlier in the day.

Working at home after years of working in an office means that you must learn the concept of time management. You no longer have someone telling you, directly or indirectly, what to do at any given time. Even if your former position involved supervision or management, you had to answer to someone else for your time. Now that you have a home business, you have to plan your day based upon the workload that you have with no one else to help you.

It may take a little bit of time for you to perfect your time management so that you know exactly how much you can accomplish in the time frame that you have allotted for its completion. In the beginning, you may work longer hours in order to accommodate that but once you develop a system, you may be able to work fewer hours than you did when you were working for someone else and make the same or better pay.

The key to making a smooth transition from office to home office is to take it slowly so that you do not take on more work than you can handle in the course of an eight hour day. You do not want to work more hours to accomplish the same thing you did when you were out to work, so you need to learn how to work efficiently so that you will have more time for yourself and your family.

Obinna Heche. Los Angeles – California

Delivering the best home based business ideas and
opportunities so you can work at home successfully..

Numbers And Finance
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Image by kenteegardin
I created this shot in my studio for use on my site, SeniorLiving.Org but I want to share it since it is applicable to much more than just senior retirement planning. Feel free to use this image but please give check out our website at www.SeniorLiving.Org and give us a Plus one or even a Facebook like. It is very difficult to get seniors to +1 so your help can really help us establish the site as a great resource for caregivers and seniors.


The Perfect Home Business Model For The 21st Century

So I was at my favorite Starbucks the other day down here in South Beach, Miami doing some work as I often do a few days a week. Being a Home Business Owner is great but sometimes you just need to get out of the home office once and awhile to mix things up a bit. Not to mention, Starbucks resembles a virtual office environment more and more these days. Entrepreneurs on lap tops drinking coffee everywhere you turn.

Anyways, I couldn’t help but over hear what appeared to be a “job” team meeting going on that was led by the office manager for this particular company. She was literally reading a set of rules and procedures to these folks about what they could and could not do in the office that sounded more like a 2nd grade orientation than a meeting amongst grown employees. I was actually pretty shocked.

So I couldn’t help but think about 2 things:

1. How thankful I am to be a full time, self employed Home Business Owner and Entrepreneur that does not have to abide by those rules 😉 and…

2. The famous Cash Flow Quadrant.

If you’re not familiar with the Cash Flow Quadrant you really need to be. This revolutionary concept was created by best selling author, financial expert and multi-millionaire Entrepreneur Robert Kiyosaki and has allowed him to go on to sell 20 million books world wide as a result.

In a nut shell…

The Cash Flow Quadrant is made up of 4 different types of people who make up the world of business – ALL 4 with completely different types of core values. If you haven’t seen it, it looks like this:

E for Employees (the folks at Starbucks)

S for Small Business Owners or Home Business Owners (You)

B for Big Business Owners (Donald Trump)

I for Investors (Hopefully You)

Kiyosaki says there is “a whole new set of rules out there for those who want to be rich.” Rules many are still not aware of, believe it or not.

Chances are the folks at Starbucks who were having those rules and procedures read to them have no idea that the S, the B or the I Quadrants are even available to them.

So of all the business models Robert Kiyosaki supports within the Cash Flow Quadrant, the “Direct Sales” Business Model is his favorite and he calls it the perfect business model of the 21st Century. He says: “Its not money that makes you rich, its business skills” and this is the industry where those skills are taught from the ground up, without the big price tag.

Kiyosaki also mentions the importance of control. If you’re not actively building a business you have very little control. This is an incredibly important point and one that should not be taken lightly.

Because remember, “its not money that makes you rich, its business skills” and many of those skills can be taught in the Direct Sales industry.

Andrew J. Cass is a Home Business Development Expert and Professional Marketing Consultant. He is in the top 1% of income earners in the Home Business industry. To learn insider secrets and powerful marketing strategies from the pros to help you explode your home business empire, sign up for Andrew’s FREE cutting edge Ezine at: http://www.TheHomeBusinessInsider.net

Image from page 197 of “Electric railway journal” (1908)
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Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: electricrailway481916newy
Title: Electric railway journal
Year: 1908 (1900s)
Subjects: Electric railroads
Publisher: [New York] McGraw Hill Pub. Co
Contributing Library: Smithsonian Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: Smithsonian Libraries

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
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Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
tions ofthe Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, the Central Railroad of New York and the Lehigh ValleyRailroad, as well as the City Hall. The Market Street lines furnished service from Jer-sey City on the east to and through the city of Newarkto the Oranges (East Orange, Orange, West Orangeand South Orange), to Irvington, Hilton and Spring-field, besides operating through the large industrialterritory along the Passaic River and passing the Penn-sylvania Railroad station, the Court House and alsovarious amusement parks lying west of Broad andMarket Streets. While the relief of the congestion described above,which was encountered at Broad and Market Streetsand to a less degree at other points in the business dis-trict of Newark, was, of course, the primary considera-tion in the development of the rerouteing plans, theterminal building itself had also for its object the hous-ing of the home offices of Public Service Corpora-tion of New Jersey, including the electric and gas de-

Text Appearing After Image:
PUBLIC SERVICE RAILWAY REROUTEING VIEW FROM REAR OF TERMINAL ELEVATED FLOOR LOOKING TOWARD MULBERRY STREET July 29, 1916] ELECTRIC RAILWAY JOURNAL 175 partments, as well as the railway, and, in addition, itprovided a station for the heart of the Essex division,especially for those lines of a suburban or interurbancharacter. Of necessity, the terminal had to be locatedclose to the center of the city so that passengers mightreach their destinations as conveniently as under theold operation. The site selected fits the conditions ad-mirably, being but 975 ft. from Broad and MarketStreets, and covering the entire space between ParkPlace (which is only 200 ft. across a park from BroadStreet) and Mulberry Street, to which street weretransferred many of the lines which formerly operatedon Broad Street. The location is between the Hud-son & Manhattan tube station and the City Hall, andis likewise about equally distant from the Pennsyl- (g) Transfer of suburban or interurban lines tostreets

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Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

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How To Start A Home Business

Taking the leap of faith and starting a home based business can be an exciting and daunting experience at the same time. While there are numerous reasons why people are drawn to the concept of a home based business the challenge is getting it off the ground. Unlike several decades ago, having a respectable home business was unheard off.

In fact if you didn’t have a shop front or office then you were considered to have a questionable business operation that lacked credibility. Times have certainly changed and so have our lifestyles. These days with the modern advances in technology you can comfortably setup a home business and compete successfully with much more established and larger businesses without any noticeable decrease in credibility.

In fact many of the multinational technology companies we know today as household names started out in dorm rooms, in the garage or a spare bedroom. Below are a few handy steps to help you get your home business off the ground.

1. Decide on your business structure. While you may be working from home you will still need to register the business and deciding on the business structure can be a critical decision. You hardly want to settle on a structure just because it is the easiest to setup or most cost effective only to have to restructure the whole business when it gets larger. If you don’t want to invest in an accountant to help you with this step there are some useful resources available at any local library about the different business structures and the benefits each structure can provide.

2. Decide on a name and register it. You will need to register your business name with the appropriate business authority in your area so that you can commence business operations. Rules and regulations differ from state to state and from country to country so consult your local government business department and they will be able to assist you on the forms you will need to fill out.

3. Decide on where your business is going to operate from. If you are lucky enough to have a spare room then you are pretty much set with getting your business going. You can probably get by with a table, chair, a filing cabinet, phone and computer in the early days. If you need other things relevant to your business you can get them later on when you are starting to create some turnover. Don’t worry about not have the perfect business setup from day one as your success won’t be determined by how beautiful your office looks. If you don’t have the luxury of a spare room then you might need to make do with a temporary office table that you need to setup and pack away at the end of each day.

4. Invest in business stationary. Probably the most important aspect of getting a business off the ground is making sure people know about it. Tell your friends and family that your open for business. A useful and cost effective way to promote your business is to get business cards designed and printed. While your at it you might as well print letterheads as well. With the abundance of cheap online printing companies out there this can be quite inexpensive and certainly well worth the small investment. Either use the available templates provided by your printer or engage the services of a cheap graphic designer from your local university to get them designed for you.

5. Start marketing. Its all well and good to have your business open but in order for it to stay open you need to have customers. Unlike having a shop front or office people aren’t going to just stumble across your business and wonder in your doors. You are going to need to do some leg work. Whether it be a telemarketing campaign or a direct mail campaign you are going to be the one that needs to do that if you want your business to grow. There are many wonderful small business associations that you can join that can give you useful advice and resources on how best to maximize your small marketing budget most effectively.

Starting a small business can be such a rewarding experience and once of the ground the fun is just beginning.

For more personal growth articles visit: http://www.personalgrowthunlimited.com

The Black & White Cafe St Paul’s… and its troubled history
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Image by brizzle born and bred
This article reviews the troubled history of The Black & White Cafe in the district St Paul’s Bristol England.

See View 2010

2003 – The owner of the Black and White Cafe says it is; a family business selling Caribbean food. The police claim it is the focal-point for drug dealers in St Paul’s and that it has been raided more times; than any other premises in Britain.

Now the city council is trying to force the sale of the building and turn a dilapidated terrace into affordable homes.

Steven Wilks’ family has owned the Black and White Cafe for more than 30 years. Its reputation has spread far and wide — but not for the quality of the traditional Jamaican food, such as. curried goat, served there.

The rundown building in the middle of a row of derelict houses is in an area notorious for drug dealers. Police have made hundreds of arrests either inside or just outside the cafe over the last two decades.

An incomplete log of incidents, operations, raids, complaints and arrests formed part of the evidence presented to a public inquiry in 2003 which will determine whether Bristol City Council can compulsorily purchase the Black and White Cafe.

The inquiry will decide whether compulsory purchase order proceedings should be allowed to go ahead on the terrace in Grosvenor Road in which the cafe stands.

The council and Knightstone Housing Association want to redevelop the terrace into seven three-bed low-cost family homes. Planning inspector Robert Sexton will draw up a report and submit it to the Secretary of State, who will announce a decision later in the year.

The log shows 54 dates on which police went into the cafe to carry out searches and make arrests for offences ranging from drug dealing to assault and robbery – There were another 164 on which police made arrests or were called to incidents outside the cafe.

One was the murder of Gary Mignott on May 1,1999, which still remains unsolved. The cafe first hit the headlines in 1980 when rioting broke out after police raided the premises and seized alcohol. During the riots a bank and a post office were attacked and a row of shops and a warehouse in Brighton Street were set alight.

Twelve police cars and several fire engines were damaged or set ablaze and more than 50 people were injured.

Since then, there have been many incidents linked to the Grosvenor Road area, none more terrifying then when members of the Aggi Crew stormed in to the Black and White Cafe, armed with guns and demanded a ‘tax’ from a rival gang of Jamaican drug dealers.

Avon and Somerset police learned about the potential bloodbath and took the unprecedented step of putting armed officers on 24-hour patrol in St Paul’s and Easton.

Most of the Aggi Crew are now back in prison and last summer police turned their attention to the remaining Jamaican dealers.

There were 41 arrests in three days of raids and since then those convicted of dealing have been receiving sentences of about five years.

Mr Wilks, who also owns a house in Redland and a restaurant in Whiteladies Road, Clifton, told the inquiry that drug dealing was rife and it would only move somewhere else if the cafe closed.

He said: "We want the chance to be in the rejuvenation programme of St Paul’s.

"I don’t want to sell my business for £500,000 or £600,000. For 30 years we have provided black food for the black community. If you want to relocate me, you will have to relocate me in Clifton but I don’t want to lose my roots."

He said the city council and Knightstone had tried to paint the most negative image they could of the cafe to get it closed. "I’ve seen this document showing all the incidents that happened in the cafe," he said.

"If somebody gets stabbed in Ashley Road, then the newspapers will say they got shot outside the Black and White Cafe. Anything that happens always get re-directed so that it happened outside the cafe but the taxman is still taking his money"

He said: "I don’t sell drugs. I’ve got a business in Whiteladies Road and if you were to ask if there were drug activities up there in Clifton, ‘I don’t think so’ because they would never allow it. The cafe has been subject to negative press since day one but closing the cafe is not going to change the drug situation in St Paul’s. St Paul’s is rife with drugs.

"Crack cocaine has mashed up the community and we have all felt that, myself included."

2003 article

Hidden behind deeply tinted windows, the Black and White Cafe in the St Paul’s district of Bristol has a tiny formica counter where you can buy traditional Caribbean fare such as ackee, saltfish, curried goat and jerk chicken. But no one comes here for the food.

In a society where open dealing is no longer out of the ordinary, the Black and White Cafe stands out from the crowd as the biggest and most blatant hard drug den in Britain.

This run-down building in the middle of a row of derelict houses has been raided more times than any other premises in the country, according to Avon and Somerset police. Last weekend alone saw three separate raids which resulted in 17 arrests and the recovery of thousands of pounds worth of crack cocaine. The scene of countless shootings, stabbings and armed robberies – many of which have never been reported – the cafe is also at the epicentre of increasingly violent gang activity.

Closed down and boarded up by the city council last year, the cafe re-opened two weeks ago and ever since has been at the heart of a battle between Bristol’s indigenous drug gangs and an influx of Jamaican dealers who are attempting to take over the trade. Bristol is the latest in a long line of cities to be hit by an explosion of Yardie activity as drug gangs move their activities outside London in search of new markets.

A report presented to Cleveland police last month noted that in 2001, just one Jamaican dealer was arrested in Middlesborough for selling Class A drugs. Last year the figure was 32. Jamaican dealers have also been arrested in North and South Wales, Hull and Aberdeen but nowhere have the problems been more apparent than in Bristol. Last month officers attached to Operation Atrium, a major initiative against the city’s crack trade, arrested 56 people, 36 of whom were Jamaican nationals.

Last year the same team uncovered a bogus college in the St Paul’s area – scene in the 1980s of race riots sparked by drugs raids – which had provided long-term visas to more than 300 Jamaicans. Of those ‘students’, 45 have since been charged with drug offences, 11 with weapons charges, one with rape and another with attempted murder. A further 121 are being detained on immigration offences while 148 remain on the run.

In many cities the arrival of large numbers of Jamaicans has resulted in violent confrontations and many detectives believe it is only a matter of time before one area erupts into all out warfare. Police in Cleveland are bracing themselves for a rise in gun crime as a result of the Yardie invasion and similar fears have been expressed in Scotland and Wales. These same clashes are at the heart of the problem in Bristol and at the centre of it all is the Black and White Cafe.

During the Nineties, the city’s drug trade was in the hands of a local gang known as the Aggi crew, an acronym formed from the surnames of the founding members, but in 1998 six of the Aggi crew were jailed after being caught dealing drugs worth more than £1 million. They had been arrested in raids involving more than 300 police officers who uncovered an arsenal of firearms including shotguns, handguns and thousands of rounds of ammunition.

Last month several key members of the Aggi crew were released on probation and emerged from prison to discover that in their absence the city’s drug trade had been taken over by a Jamaican gang known as the Hype crew. Arming themselves, the Aggi crew stormed into the Black and White Cafe and demanded the Jamaicans pay ‘tax’ to them if they wanted to continue dealing in the city. Then, as a final mark of disrespect, they robbed every person in the cafe at gun point.

As they handed over their money and possessions, the Jamaicans told the Aggi crew that they would not be paying them a single penny and that the only way to resolve the argument would be with guns.

It didn’t take long for Avon and Somerset police to learn about the potential bloodbath. They responded by taking the unprecedented step of placing armed officers on 24-hour foot patrol in the most volatile areas – the streets around the Black and White Cafe and Stapleton Road in the neighbouring district of Easton. They also launched a series of raids on the homes of the Aggi crew who, as a result, have now been returned to prison.

The move has significantly reduced the threat of gang warfare but has left the drug trade solely in the hands of the Jamaicans. Often dismissed as ‘disorganised’ rather than organised crime, Jamaican dealers in Bristol have actually brought a new level of cunning to the drug business. Instead of holding wraps of crack in their mouths, the dealers on Stapleton Road placed the drugs in old Coke cans which would then be left in the gutter. After handing over their money, customers would then be directed to the nearest can. The scam made it almost impossible for police to link batches of drugs to specific dealers and gave some degree of protection from prosecution.

To prevent their merchandise being swept away, the dealers also launched a massive campaign of intimidation against the council’s utility workers. Refuse collections halted altogether in many areas as did road and pavement repairs (dealers were also hiding drugs in the cracks in the pavement). The dealers then turned their attention to the workers attempting to install CCTV systems. Within weeks Stapleton Road had become known as the ‘street of fear’ with dealers, prostitutes and muggers operating with virtual impunity. In a seven-month period, 915 crimes were recorded along a 150-metre stretch.

Although Avon and Somerset police have poured massive resources into dealing with the problem and made great progress, they admit that they are far from finding a solution. ‘We have made more than 800 arrests in the past 18 months but on the streets the problem remains as bad as ever,’ Detective Chief Inspector Neil Smart, head of Operation Atrium, told The Observer. ‘There is a lot of gun crime that we do not get to hear about and we suspect there have been drive-by shootings at the Black and White Cafe that have never been reported. The place is known around the world. Two of my officers were on assignment in Jamaica and they overheard two locals talking about the Black and White being the place to go to get drugs in Bristol.’

When The Observer visited the cafe last week it was business as usual. The air was thick with the cloying smell of cannabis and the sounds of hard reggae. A dozen people were milling about close to the pinball machine while the main room was dominated by two snooker tables, both of which were in constant use. According to local detectives the players are often the main dealers. Drugs are taped to the base of the snooker tables allowing easy access but again frustrating police efforts to link drugs to particular dealers.

An attempt to prosecute the cafe’s owner, Stephen Wilks, for allowing drugs to be sold on the premises ended in failure. Last week the city council pushed through a compulsory purchase order on the cafe which will now be demolished, though it will be at least a year before the bulldozers move in. Wilks was not available for comment.

DCI Smart believes the way forward is to introduce what he describes as ‘joined-up thinking’, ensuring his officers work alongside the probation service, Customs and the Immigration department to find ways of dealing with each new threat.

While the demise of the Black and White Cafe is unlikely to produce tears among the police force, locals are less sure. Christine Boulton, 50, works with the homeless in Bristol and has lived close to the cafe for 31 years. ‘The cafe does have a negative effect on the community but then again, if you are looking for the local bad lads, sooner or later they will always end up there. If you shut it down, all you are going to do is move the problem. If it’s not the Black and White, it will just become somewhere else.’


Some of the incidents at Black and White café recorded by police over 23 years many go un-reported:

In the 1950s and ’60s immigrants from the West Indies were encouraged to come to Bristol to live and work, and many settled around the areas of St Paul’s and Montpelier. Nightlife there took off in the Seventies, with blues clubs and all-night shebeens soon popping up (St Paul’s festival is still an annual summer event, mellow and relaxed, like a smaller, less frenetic Notting Hill carnival). In 1980, following a police raid on the popular Black and White Café, the St Paul’s riots erupted, the first of the decade’s civil disturbances.

1980: Bristol riots after police raid Black and White café.

1984: Three officers attacked by customers after going into café to arrest a man.

1986, February: Two-day riot outside café after car chase.

September: Raid at café followed by three nights of rioting.

1992, February: Person seen to leave café and conduct a drugs deal, arrested and drugs seized.

August: Two suspected drug dealers stopped by police after leaving café and drugs found.

November: Drugs seized from pool table inside café.

1995, 8 February: Known offenders seen leaving café. Found with CS gas and drugs.

1996, 3 January: Two brothers shot in a disturbance outside the café. One later died.

1997, 25 July: Police raid, £20,000 worth of drugs seized, two arrests.

13 October: People arrested for supplying drugs inside café.

1999, 1 May: Murder of Gary Mignott outside café.

6 May-summer: 32 arrests for drug dealing.

21 June: Report of hostage at café.

2000, 31 May-10 August: Numerous arrests and drug seizures at the cafe.

14 December: Sock containing drugs found inside café.

2001: Immigration arrest.

2002: 1 January: Stabbing outside café. Man seen outside café pointing a gun at a woman.

12 February: 29 arrests for drugs and immigration offences.

14-15 May: Three people convicted of conspiracy to supply controlled drugs.

22 October: Drugs seized from hole in wall inside café.

27 November: Assault on officer inside café.

2003, 13 January: Aggi Crew gang stage hold-up inside café.

23 January: Café searched by consent, drugs seized from a hole inside toilet unit and also from inside an electronic bar game.

23 April: Report of 50 people fighting outside the café.

2 May, Drug dealing reported outside cafe.

13 May: Report of dealer working day & night inside cafe, also report of people with guns inside cafe.

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Finding Books On Home Business

With the growth of internet and commerce, working at home has become extremely popular, as many have found they have the time and energy to work around other family schedules. However, for a person just beginning a new job working from home, it may pay to read about the experiences others have had before making the decision to put an office in the home.

There are many books on home businesses that can help get started and help you through the process of setting up your home office and how to deal with those who do not understand what you do for a living. One of the first books you should look for are those who help you decide if a home business is right for you. Not everyone will be able to operate a home business and if you are the type that requires someone to remind you of deadlines and are happier when someone gives you a task to complete and lets you do it, then a home business may not be right for you.

It requires self discipline to operate a home business and while you may have all the experience needed to do the job you are starting, you may not have the other knowledge to be successful at running your own business. When you work for someone else, there are people that take care of most aspects of the business. Accounting, to handle bills and income as well as supplies and advertising are all parts of any business and while you may not need to be an expert at those positions, reading a few books on home businesses can help you understand what you need to know to be successful.

Having the right equipment in your office will make the paperwork part of running a home business easier and more convenient and a book on organization may be needed. Take a look around the house and the areas that have been in your control. If there are places that may qualify for disaster relief, you will need some help in organizing and setting priorities.
Before you go online to buy books on home businesses, visit your local library or books store and see what others have to say. Many of the offerings online are e books written by people whose only experience in a home business is writing a book on it and selling it online.

Find books by true entrepreneurs who took time and idea, started a business in their home and became successful. Even those who started small stores and grew them into major chains can be of help in developing the business relations that may be important to running a successful home business. While the markets they catered to may be different, their books on home businesses can be adapted to fit most any business model and can show you some of the obstacles you will likely run into as well as tips on removing them.

Obinna Heche. Los Angeles – California

Delivering the best home based business ideas and
opportunities so you can work at home successfully..

Venice, May 2014 – 19
office home business
Image by Ed Yourdon
I was particularly intrigued by the juxtaposition of two generations here — both apparently unaware of the others’ existence. Of course, the two older women in front could not even see who was behind them … but the two young women in the rear seemed to be completely oblivious of the existence of the women in front of them.

To some extent, this was a common theme here in Venice: separate, different generations basically ignoring each other. I suppose the same is true in the U.S., but it seemed much more distinctive here …


I’ve been to Venice once or twice for brief business trips during my life, which had the same characteristics as the business trips I described in a separate Flickr album about Paris — i.e., they basically involve flying into a busy airport at night, taking a taxi to a generic business-traveler’s hotel (a Hilton in Venice looks just like a Hilton in Cairo,except perhaps for the canal outside the main entrance), and then spending several days working in the hotel (if the purpose of the trip was a seminar or computer conference), or at a client’s office (also “generic” in most cases — you can’t even tell what floor you’re on when you get off the elevator, because every floor of “open office” layouts is the same). The trip usually ends in the late afternoon or evening of the final day, with a mad dash back to the airport to catch the last plane home to NYC. Thus, a business trip to Venice is almost indistinguishable from a business trip to Omaha. Or Albany. Or Tokyo.

But Venice is different from almost any other place in the world, and I’ve had a couple of vacation trips to experience that side of the city. But it’s been a long, long time: the first such visit was back in 1976 (which you can see here on Flickr), and the second visit was in 1983 (pictures of which do exist on Flickr, but have been restricted to family-only access, since they consist mostly of boring pictures of drooling babies and kids sticking their collective tongues out at me).

Thirty years is a long time between visits … but for a city like Venice, I doubt that very much has changed. Well, perhaps there wasn’t a McDonald’s outlet in Venice when I first came here (and I did photograph one such outlet on this current visit, which you’ll find in this album), and you can certainly guarantee that people weren’t walking around with cellphones and smartphones the way they are today. And while the tourists typically did have cameras back in the good-old-days, they were typically modest little “Instamatic” film-based gadgets, rather than the big, garish, DSLR cameras that everyone now seems to carry around with them, complete with advertising logos all over the camera-straps and bodies to remind you that they, too, can afford to buy an expensive Canon or Nikon gadget that they really don’t know how to use properly. (Sorry, I got carried away there …)

But the buildings, and the people, and the canals, and the gondolas … all of that is the same. And that’s what I’ve tried to capture in this set of photos. The tourist crowds are now so thick (even in May!) that I didn’t even bother going to the square at San Marco, and I didn’t bother taking any photos from the Rialto bridge over the Grand Canal; but you will see some photos of tourists in this album, along with photos of the local people who are still here …

I don’t expect to come back to Venice again in the next year or two … but if it turns out to be 20 or 30 years before my next return, I suspect it will all look pretty much exactly the same as it did on this trip, and in 1983, and when I first saw it in 1976.

In this video you will learn about what deductions you can claim if you operate your business from home or if you have a home office.

For more information, visit http://www.ato.gov.au/TaxBasicsVideos

Related Office Home Business Articles


Tax Deductions For The Home Business Owner

Tax time can be one of the most anticipated periods of the year. After the holidays have become a memory and before the fun of summer begins, we must devote several hours of our lives to completing this project. This can be especially challenging for the home based business owner. There are several deductions that are available for the work from home individual. These ideas can help reduce your tax burden.

1) Accountant Costs

If you use the services of an accountant, these costs are totally deductible for a work at home business.

2) Advertising Costs

Any amount of money that is spent to advertise an internet business is tax deductible. Business cards, flyers, newspaper ads, internet ads, etc.

3) Bank Fees

All of the bank costs incurred to run a home business are tax deductible.

4) Research And Training Materials

Any educational materials purchased to increase your expertise for developing, maintaining and improving a home based business are a tax deduction. This includes software and E-books.

5) Internet Service Provider

Keep a log of the business hours spent online and personal time on the internet. The business percentage can be taken as a tax deduction against ISP costs per month.

6) Web Hosting Fees

The monthly costs paid to a web host provider for managing an internet business site are deductible.

7) Long Distance Telephone Costs

Keep an accurate account of the amount of money spent for long distance phone calls that relate to a home business.

8) Office Equipment

Your computer, printer, fax machine, answering machine, scanner, furniture, remodeling, etc. are tax deductible when used for a home based business. Some people choose to depreciate the cost over several years or take the entire expense at one time. Your tax situation will determine the decision.

9) Shipping Costs

If you ship products, the amount of money spent for boxes, tape, packing peanuts, bubble wrap, etc. is tax deductible. If you use a personal car to transport packages to the post office, keep a log of the distance traveled.

10) Office Supplies

Paper, stationery, folders, pens, pencils, tape, envelopes, printer ink, address labels, post-its, postage stamps etc. that are used for the operation of a home business are a deduction.

11) Interest Expenses

All of the interest accumulated on credit cards for the development, maintenance and improvement of a home based business is a tax deduction. If you have any loans that were taken out to start a home business, this interest is also tax deductible.

12) Office Space

Rent, taxes, mortgage interest, utilities, phone etc are partly deductible. The area devoted to a home based enterprise must be used exclusively for business purposes and the deduction can only be a percentage of the total house costs based on the amount of space the home business uses. Using one room for an office and another room for packaging your products creates a tax deduction for both rooms.

This is not an all inclusive list of tax deductions for your home business. The IRS has a publication (IRS publication 587: Business Use Of Your Home) that clearly defines all of the allowances that you can take. The best approach for completing your tax return is keeping accurate records. The idea of sacrificing several hours of your time for calculating taxes is not very exciting. Unfortunately, it is a task that all of us must face. Good record keeping within the guidelines of these ideas will develop more time for yourself and less time for the IRS when you begin your return.

“The way to get ahead is to start now.”

John Fortner lives in Oregon and works from his home through his online pursuits. He is the owner of Best-Income Opportunities which offers free information and proven opportunities for creating work at home businesses. To learn more about this topic please visit his website at: http://www.Best-IncomeOpportunities.com To receive free information for starting a home business please go to: http://www.Best-IncomeOpportunities.com/optin.html

Wells Continental Leyland, Maldon c 1979
office home business
Image by sludgegulper
At home in Wantz Road, Maldon, late 70s. WUR855J, the only Leyland in Albert Wells’ fleet. Behind is 3001UK, the ex-Don Everall Duple Continental bodied AEC Reliance which was in the fleet also for a long time. I can now place the redeveloped depot – somewhere around here which was originally the yard and garage of Hall & Son of Maldon, which Wells took over in the late 60s. The site of this photo today looks like this . The house on the left is identifiably still. Sash windows have been removed from the houses and a new estate laid out on the garage and hard standing area.
WUR was acquired when almost new from the strange Beachcomber Holidays Ltd concern which suddenly appeared , registered at an accountant’s office in New London Road, Chelmsford in 1971. The MD was a Trevor (or Terence, I forget) Beanland of Hull. Several second-hand vehicles were acquired, followed by the Duple bodied Leyland Leopard and one,possibly two 12m AEC Reliances. The firm went under shortly afterwards, possibly never having operated any holidays whatsoever. WUR857J spent weeks on end,when brand new, dumped in a public car park in Chelmsford in summer 1971 and Wells obviously snapped up 855 at a nice price. I never saw 856 being operated. (857 was in a white and orange livery) , but 856 eventually passed through the hands of Premier Travel.
Wells retired from business in the late 80s I think, and died in 1999, having operated an eclectic mix of vehicles, mainly lightweight, new and second-hand.
WUR855J was used in a pale yellow and white livery for a long time, later appearing in the firm’s Red and white, and seemed only to perform schools contracts even when new.
A known fleetlist of Beachcomber, during its Mayfly like existence will follow here…..
LHK390J Ford Transit
KNK363G Bedford VAL70 – Duple Northern
JUH376E Bedford VAM14 Duple
WUR855J Leyland Leopard – Duple 53 seater
WUR857J AEC Reliance 6U3ZR – Plaxton 50 seater
SKG709H Bedford VAL70- Plaxton, new to Cavalier, Sutton,later with Norfolk, Nayland
ATU55F Bedford VAL70 – Plaxton, new to Jackson of Altrincham.

(Bus Lists gives WUR856J identical to 857)



6 Reasons To Open An Office Cleaning Business

It may be a good idea to open an office cleaning business. In today’s economic times, it is best to have a plan B. Having your own business will give you something to fall back on in case you lose your job or if the company you work for closes up. I can think of a few other reasons to start your own cleaning business now.

Financial reasons – A good reason to open an office cleaning business if to have financial security. You can’t be sure that you will have a job to go to next week. A part time job or your own small business can make up for lost earnings in case you get laid off or something. You won’t have to worry about where to get money to pay the bills.

Making it big – You can make your business grow and earn more than you thought possible. If you have the time to focus on it, you may even earn more from your part time cleaning business than from your regular day job. You can open an office cleaning business from scratch and start small. If your customers are satisfied with your service, you’ll eventually have more clients.

Earn right away – You can start to earn within a month after you open an office cleaning business. If you had been soliciting clients right away, you can probably get you first client within a week or 2, get your payment at the end of the month. Provide incentives for your client by offering a discount on your next visit if they can refer new clients.

Small capital – You don’t have to purchase expensive heavy duty equipment right away. Like we mentioned earlier, you can start small by doing projects for small companies. You could rent your equipment for your first few projects or get clients that only need small cleaning services that don’t require heavy duty cleaning equipment. Roll back your earnings back into your company to buy more equipment later on.

You’re the boss – For a change, you can give the orders instead of take them. You can have employees to the dirty work while you manage the business. Solicit new projects yourself, offer your people a commission if they get new projects. One thing you should do yourself though is to handle the finances. Never entrust your earnings to an employee.

Set your own time – A big plus to having your own business is you can set your own schedule. Now, you won’t have to drive to work daily or spend most of your waking hours at the office. You can even see your kids grow up with a home based cleaning business. Once you have employees working for you, you can take it easy, wake late and go home early in time for dinner with the family.

Surf the net and find affordable equipment. Learn how to market your cleaning business effectively to get more clients. Crunch some numbers and find out how much you will need to get started. If you don’t think you have enough money, you can find financing elsewhere like from a bank. This is when you will need to prepare a business plan. You will also need to prepare a contract. Get help from people who can give you tips about how to open an office cleaning business.

Russian Prefab Homes
office home business
Image by jurvetson
Concrete blocks stacked into an apartment building.
Sakhalin Island, North of Japan. (The ocean swim at midnight was brisk!)

Their transition from a planned economy was slow, and the U.S. was trying to help with the transition with some business coaching sessions. I met with about 40 entrepreneurs, and few of them had any concept of market competition. If they had a manufacturing permit for rototillers, for example, they wanted to ramp to full production, even though their manufacturing cost was far greater than the sales price of the fully taxed Korean imports. (The sentiment was very different, and more hopeful in the newly independent states in the West, such as Estonia, which I also visited in 1998).

Two oil exploration consortia have spent B on this island over the past decade. So the startups that owned their office real estate have done well.

10 tips to transform any home office into a professional and profitable place of business, from Judy Smith, co-author with her brother Dan Smith of “Business Mojo: Achieving Success Through Mystical Exploration.” (www.BusinessSuccessBook.com)

This video offers advice from the practical, including separating your home office work and personal life to the mystical including Feng Shui and using crystals to attract potential clients..


Increase Your Income Through a Legitimate Home Business – Register It!

Your decision to start a home business must take into consideration the need to secure a business license. Of course, not all home businesses require registration. However, if you want your home business to grow, then you need to protect your business name, register with the appropriate agencies, and pay your taxes.

Advantages of Business Registration

As a legitimate home business entity, you have access to government programs and private projects that help small businesses. Banks and government agencies require registration documents, and your readiness in presenting these documentary requirements will expedite the process of releasing funds and technical support for your business.

As a legitimate home business, you can fully expand your business. You can advertise your services, avail of loans, hire more people, deal with more suppliers and get more customers, pay your taxes, and expand geographically. You can do all these without the niggling fear that, one of these days, the Internal Revenue Service and the Department of Labor, among other government agencies, will uncover your covert operations and confiscate your assets.

Business Registration Using Your Name

When you use your name to bill customers and pay suppliers, you are not required by law to register your business. However, taking your legitimate home business to the next level of partnership and incorporation is definitely easier when you have sole proprietorship records.

The first basic step in home business registration is to visit your County Clerk’s Office. There are zoning ordinances and documentary requirements that you need to comply with, particularly the zoning laws. Otherwise, you have to find another legitimate home business opportunity.

In registering, you can use your social security identification as tax identification. However, it is highly recommended that you secure a separate tax ID for business purposes. You need to avoid giving out sensitive personal information like your social security number to clients and suppliers; the opportunities for fraud at your expense increase the more people know your social security details.

Business Registration under an Assumed Name

When you choose to operate under an assumed name, you should visit the County Clerk’s Office and file for a “Doing Business As” (DBA) registration. You can download the form (X-201) from the Internet or buy from stores. You have to accomplish the form in 3 copies, one each for the County Clerk’s Office, for the bank where you will open your account, and for your office.

The County Clerk’s Office should notify you about the availability of your assumed name; once you stake your claim to it, nobody else can. This process enables you to operate your legitimate home business with a unique name, which is very important in establishing name recall and association.

You also need to put a valid address (no P.O. Boxes allowed) and all the required documents should be notarized. Again, secure separate tax identification and an Employer Identification Number (EIN), especially if you plan to buy goods at wholesale prices, hire employees, and file taxes. These are very essential requirements to make your business grow in the near future.

You can then open a business bank account, which will require your business registration, tax ID, and EIN. After that, you also need to secure a Retail tax Authorization and other licenses and permits required by law.

The process and the documentary requirements might seem circuitous and daunting to a novice like you. However, the advantages of owning a legal and legitimate home business will be well worth the trouble and the effort.

For helpful resources on how to make quick money and how to make money at home, visit BestRetirementAlternatives.com and get a free e-book on RETIREMENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE! They have the best information on how to start and operate for profit your very own legitimate home business.

20_About, five-thirty (AM), he would return
office home business
Image by Jim Surkamp
Andrew Leopold’s Forlorn Hope (2) – by Jim Surkamp With Author Steve French
civilwarscholars.com/?p=13391 5515 words.

by Jim Surkamp on June 19, 2014 in Civilian, Confederate, Jefferson County, Union, Wartime
Andrew Leopold Warmaker To Peacemaker With Steve French, Author “Rebel Chronicles,” contact: info-sfrench52@yahoo.com

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University system, offering a quality, affordable, online education. Interpretations in civilwarscholars.com videos and posts do not in any way reflect modern-day policies and positions of American Public University System. More . . .

Redmond Burke, Andrew Leopold, and Their Gang Descend on The River Towns:
1_Leopold is ordered by General Stuart
2_on “detached service” and, with a small team
3_from Berryville to Shepherdstown
Leopold is ordered by General Stuart to join Redmond Burke on “detached service” and, with a small team, stays behind in the Potomac River area from Berryville to Shepherdstown while the main Confederate Army moves further south. His job is to find conscripts, carry mail between homes and soldiers, steal horses and watch the movements of the Federal army. Leopold in carrying mail, is also enabled to determine the names of, and whereabouts of able-bodied men not enlisted in his Confederate army, such as Jacob Hudson and Charles Entler.

The Wayward Letter:
4_One letter to be delivered that would cause much controversy
(One letter to be delivered that would cause much controversy was a “thank you” note to widow Lily Parran Lee in Shepherdstown. Gen. Stuart had been trying to order a new uniform while at The Bower. He had visited Mrs. Lee, a dear and trusted friend in Shepherdstown. Her husband, William Fitzhugh Lee, died at First Manassas/Bull Run wearing silver spurs Stuart had given him. It seems, according to the letter, that Daniel Rentch, a merchant in Shepherdstown, was commissioned and – did indeed have made – the famed cape that J.E.B. Stuart would wear in the war. It was delivered. In the letter Stuart tells Mrs. Lee to thank Mr. Rentch for the cape. Burke was carrying a letter between Stuart and Mrs. Lee, maybe this one).

Wednesday – November 19, 1862, Dam No. 4 on the Potomac River – Leopold’s First Victim:

5_Leopold’s First Victim
Fearing conscription, Unionist residents hastily relocated across the Potomac into the safety of Maryland. The large family of one Jim Dunn was making such a move across the river near the guard lock of Dam No. 4, wth some pickets from the 12th Pennsylvania Cavalry watching from the Maryland side. Burke’s and Leopold’s gang suddenly appeared and with gunfire broke up the moving, leaving most of Dunn’s family stuck still on the Virginia side. Dunn was stuck on the Maryland side. Dunn asked three local men – Theodore “Mort” Cookus, a farmer with land on the Virginia side, Charles Ridenour and William Colbert – ambling along on the towpath – to help get his family and cargo across the river. After over an hour, the four men re-crossed the Potomac to the Virginia side. Burke and Leopold and others attacked again:

Author French Recounts Leopold’s Firing On “Mort” Cookus:

6_Author French Recounts
Suddenly Burke, Leopold, Hipsley and O’Brien appeared. Leopold shouted to Ridenour, “Halt you Yankee Son-of-a bitch!”. . . He (Ridenour) remembered Cookus crying out, “For God’s sake men, don’t shoot me!” Burke replied, “Surrender or we will surely kill you.” Then almost simultaneously, the captain and Leopold each fired once into the skiff. Cookus, now hit on the left side, jumped into the river. “After Cookus jumped out,” Ridenour later testified, “he swam twelve or fifteen feet and received three more shots. Every time the guns crack, he dodged his head under water. Capt. Burke says don’t kill him. Laypole says I will kill the son of a bitch.” And he did. Union Gen. George Gordon wrote: . . . a brave and plucky fellow named Cookus . . . plunged into the river and struck out vigorously for the Maryland shore. Two-thirds of the way across he was hit by a bullet and sank dead to the bottom of the river. – Gordon, p. 14.
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7_sank dead to the bottom of the river

Author Steve French:

8_they’re all back with Stuart
They are taken to Fort McHenry. The soldiers who are captured – they’re released very soon afterwards, paroled. And by January the first, 1864, they’re all back with Stuart at his camp near Fredericksburg, Virginia. That winter, as soon as he is exchanged and the others are exchanged, they’re back in the service – dispatched service – operating once again in the Shepherdstown/Berryville area, carrying mail back and forth between the citizens and armies, scouting and so on.

March 6, 1863 – Leopold – the Deserter’s Avenger in Shepherdstown:

9_he comes into Shepherdstown with John O’Brien
Author Steve French:
On the night of March the 6th, he comes into Shepherdstown with John O’Brien, and he’s hunting for a man named Jacob Hudson. He finds Hudson caring for his uncle at his house at Shepherdstown. And he knocks on the door with O’Brien. Evidently he doesn’t know Hudson, but Hudson has been talking about him around town. When Hudson opens the door, Leopold asks for Hudson – “Is Hudson in the house?” – Hudson immediately becomes scared and he runs toward the back door and he is shot down. George Brantner, who was a former Confederate soldier, he’s seated right in that room, cannot tell whether it was Leopold or O’Brien who shot the young man, but he sure identifies him later on, because Leopold met Brantner at the door and (Leopold) told him he had mail for him. Leopold will come down the street that night. He will tell one resident (Federal postmaster Elias Baker on German Street-JS) here in the town that he did shoot a man up the street and then they will leave the mail here and head back for camp.

10_Leopold Avenges Again
March 15-16, 1863 – Leopold Avenges Again at the Bridgeport, MD Ferry:
Author French:

11_group of men go to Sharpsburg
12_Charles Entler
Ten days later, on the night of March 15th & 16th, Leopold and a group of men go to Sharpsburg, Maryland, and, in Sharpsburg that night they steal six horses from an oyster wagon, parked outside of a local tavern. After midnight on the 16th, they return to try to get across the river. They go to Bridgeport where the ferry is, directly behind me, and they knock on the door. They say they have a dispatch to take to Harper’s Ferry to (Federal) General Stevenson. The young man, Charles Entler and his friend Samuel Jones, that are in the office that night, sleeping in the office, refuse to answer the door. Finally, Leopold starts tearing the shutters off the windows and Charles decides to come out. Samuel Jones would later say he knew it was Leopold at the door, but he was too scared, too frightened to say a word. As Charles comes out the door, his brother, Luther, who is in the ferry house himself, walks outside; and, as soon as he gets outside, he hears a man shout at his brother:

13_By God, I’m Captain Leopold
14_Charles, nineteen-years-old, runs off and dies
“By God, I’m Captain Leopold and I’ve been looking for you a long time.” Immediately the gunshot goes off, Luther turns, makes haste into his house to get his revolver. His brother, Charles, nineteen-years-old, runs off and dies in the road, going up towards Ferry Hill. Leopold and his men escape. Now, they’re wanted men. The Middletown Valley Register over in Maryland, a few days later, comes out with a long article about Leopold and his band and at the end of it says: “Leopold deserves a hempen collar.” So he’s a wanted man, not only by the authorities in Maryland, but by Union soldiers, especially Major General Robert Milroy, the famous “Grey Eagle,” who was headquartered at that time in Winchester.

April 21-22, 1863 south of Millwood, Va.- Leopold and his team are recaptured:

French continues:
Towards the end of April around April 21st, Union forces are sent out of Berryville and they go to Castleman’s Ferry. That night, they will capture Leopold, and, once again, some of the Burkes – Hipsley and some other men when they surround the house, and they threaten to burn it down, if the Confederates don’t come out.

15_They’re taken to Winchester and put in the Clarke County jail
Author French continues:
They’re taken to Winchester and put in the Clarke County jail. While in that jail, one of Milroy’s citizen spies named Michael Graham from Woodstock, Virginia, talks to Leopold and find out what he wants. Leopold wants to either join the Union Army or be allowed to get out of jail and go to Ohio. In return he will tell Milroy who the scouts and spies are in the lower Shenandoah Valley. He will meet with Milroy, and Milroy will listen to all this, but Leopold plays his hand too fast, and tells Milroy what he needs to know beforehand.

16_brought before Federal Major General Robert Milroy
Leopold (Laypole, Leopole) is brought before Federal Major General Robert Milroy at Winchester, VA and begins bargaining:

Major-General SCHENCK,WINCHESTER, VA., April 25, 1863. Baltimore, Md.: Rebel [Andrew T.] Leopole, the last two days in irons, hoping for leniency, makes this statement:

Residence, Sharpsburg, Md. Enlisted in Confederate service two years ago, as ensign First Regiment Virginia (rebel) Cavalry, and remained in that regiment until Stuart’s appointment as brigadier, about a month after the first battle of Manassas, when I became ensign of his brigade, which I continued to be until last May, when I was transferred to the Virginia Cavalry as third lieutenant. I continued in that regiment until after the battle of Sharpsburg, in September last, when I was promoted to first lieutenant of Company D, same regiment, in which regiment I served until November 24 last, when I was captured at Shepherdstown. I remained a prisoner until January 6 last, when I was exchanged, and reported, as ordered, to General Stuart, at his headquarters, where I remained until January 13, acting as his couriers. On January 14, as ordered by him, I left for Castlemans Ferry, in command of 70 men, where I remained until last Tuesday, when, with 6 of my men, I was captured. My business there was to observe the movements of Federal forces, . . .

NOTE – At this point Leopold appears to be divulging intelligence on Confederate positions to Milroy in hope of leniency – JS:
and report to General Fitzhugh Lee, who is now between Markham Station and Manassas Gap Railroad and the Shenandoah River, about 2 miles east of the Blue Ridge, with the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Tenth Virginia Cavalry and two batteries. Regiments average about 350 men each. The locality of these troops is about 16 miles from Castlemans Ferry and 10 miles from Berrys Ferry. General Trimble, with three infantry brigades, is near Orleans, in Fauquier County. Lee’s and Trimble’s forces moved at the same time from Culpeper Court-House to their present position, where they arrived about two days before my capture. There are two other brigades one from Louisiana and the other from Virginia encamped between Sperryville and Little Washington. They belong to Trimble’s division. With each brigade is a battery, and a battalion of artillery besides, attached to the division. The brigades, I think, will average 1,900 men each. The two brigades near Sperryville came that far with the other brigades, and halted there. I saw Geueral Stuart on the 17th of this month between Salem and Jefferson, and learned from him that A. P. Hill, with a portion of his command, had left for the Valley by way of Hanover Junction, Charlottesville, and Staunton. I saw Hill’s baggage at Culpeper, and learned from the master of transportation that it was en route from Staunton. I heard General Stuart say that the Federal forces at Winchester would be captured as soon as the Shenandoah River became passable. I also learned from his general order book that Jones had been ordered to march to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and destroy certain trestle-work on that road. I am tired of fighting, and wish to take the oath of allegiance and retire into Ohio. I have always stood high with General Stuart, enjoyed his confidence, and, when at his headquarters, ate at his table.

Milroy concludes in this report:
The above statement is strongly corroborated by other circumstances and information. I recommend that Heintzelman be directed to ascertain the truth of the above statement, so far as it refers to Fitzhugh Lees and Trimbles forces and their locality. R. H. MILROY, Major-General. – Letter to Maj. General Robert C. Schenck from Maj. General R. H. Milroy. pp. 252-253.

Author French recaps:
They’re taken to Winchester and put in the Clarke County jail. While in that jail, one of Milroy’s citizen spies named Michael Graham from Woodstock, Virginia, talks to Leopold and finds out what he wants. Leopold wants to either join the Union Army or be allowed to get out of jail and go to Ohio. In return he will tell Milroy who the scouts and spies are in the lower Shenandoah Valley. He will meet with Milroy, and Milroy will listen to all this, but Leopold plays his hand too fast, and tells Milroy what he needs to know beforehand. So Milroy won’t agree to give him his freedom or allow him to switch sides and join the Union Army, but he will pack him to the prison at Fort McHenry.

Fort McHenry, MD – Leopold is not trusted, is tried after much delay and hanged:

French continues:
So Milroy won’t agree to give him his freedom or allow him to switch sides and join the Union Army, but he will pack him to the prison at Fort McHenry.

17_Baker would write that Leopold is not trusted
Captain Joel Baker, the guard, comments that most of the prisoners of the group – there’s about eight or nine in the guard room – most of the prisoners are cultured gentlemen, but not Leopold. Baker would write that Leopold is not trusted by the other prisoners. They think he would sell them out for just a few cents.

Leopold is held in prison until mid-December, 1863, when he is put on trial by a military tribunal. He’s charged with a number of crimes, of being a guerrilla, murderer, violating an act of war, and being a spy. The tribunal is led by Col. W. W. Bates of the 8th New York heavy artillery. The Judge Advocate is Lieutenant Roderick Baldwin. Leopold will represent himself, but he will have the help of a local, Baltimore attorney, Milton Whitney Esq. who was well-known in Baltimore for many years.

18_he will have the help of a local, Baltimore attorney, Milton Whitney Esq.
Author French continues:
The trial opens up. A lot of local residents come from here to Fort McHenry to testify, including Daniel Rentch, Luther Entler, Samuel Jones, other men from Shepherdstown and also General Milroy will appear. The trial will go – on and off – for probably three, almost four, weeks. They break for Christmas a while; they break for different witnesses to arrive. Finally, two charges are dropped, but he is still charged with being a guerrilla and murderer, both capital offences.

19_wasn’t a guerilla, that he was a Confederate soldier
His defense rests on that he wasn’t a guerilla, that he was a Confederate soldier, especially dispatched into this area by J.E.B. Stuart. Also, he refused to admit that he had murdered Charles Entler. He said he didn’t have anything more to do with the murder of that young boy than any of the judges on the tribunal; and, he said the shooting of Cookus was just part of a local skirmish. So he denied being a guerrilla; he denied being a murderer.

In his summation, Lt. Baldwin, the Judge Advocate, would say: we owe something to the people of the border who have been hounded from their home, who have been murdered at their doorstep. We need to protect them.

The verdict comes back. He is convicted of murder: the murder of Entler, the murder of Cookus – and he is convicted of being a guerilla. Afterwards, the verdict and the results of the trial – goes up through the chain of command. Finally, they reach that April, Judge Advocate Joseph Holt. Holt reviews all capital cases for Abraham Lincoln. In a four-page review, Holt will say this man has been convicted of these crimes and he deserves the death penalty. In late April, 1864, Abraham Lincoln will sign off on that.

French continues:
At that time, Leopold is taken from the guard room, shackled. He’s put in a cell, still in the inner fort, but not with the rest of the men on death row. During that month, there is a big escape from the guard room at Fort McHenry. William Boyd Compton leads the rest of the men in the escape and they all eventually get back to the Confederate lines.

On the evening of April the 22nd, Leopold will be informed by his chaplain, Doctor Reese, that his execution will be the next morning. He will meet with Reese that evening for prayer and communion. During the winter, Leopold would become a committed Christian. He studied the Bible frequently. He had another small book that he would study. They had prayer. Reese left for a while.

20_About, five-thirty (AM), he would return
About, five-thirty (AM), he would return. Once again, they would talk of the afterlife. Then he (Leopold) would go out under guard, get on the wagon atop his coffin, and he would ride to the execution site right outside the walls.

21_Robert Baylor of Charlestown was also a prisoner
Captain Robert Baylor of Charlestown was also a prisoner at Fort McHenry at the time. He was out on the grounds of the fort and as he passed Baylor, Leopold would wave to Baylor and said: “Tell the boys I remain true to the cause.” As they neared the execution site, he could see the soldiers of the fort lined up on three sides of the gallows. The gallows there could have four executions at the time.

22_Lew Wallace was there, later on the author of “Ben Hur.”
(Federal) Major General Lew Wallace was there, later on the author of “Ben Hur.” He was the commander-in-chief of the Eighth Corps Middle Department, and Brig. General W. W. Morris, the sixty-six year old commander of Fort McHenry was also there.

23_Leopold pointed to Gen. Morris and said
24_The hood was put on his neck
He was helped off the wagon. The reporter for “The Baltimore American” said that “Leopold went up the steps firm and undaunted.” Once atop the scaffold, he was asked for any last words and Leopold pointed to Gen. Morris and said: “Old man, you’re the reason I’m here. But I’ll forgive and I’ll meet you in Heaven.” After that, he stepped back. The hood was put on his neck by Private Elijah Brown, and then the rope put around his neck.

25_Leopold dropped into eternity
Just afterwards, Morris gave the signal, and then – Leopold dropped into eternity. He would hang there for about twenty minutes before the soldiers took him down. There were friends there in Baltimore, some of Leopold’s friends. They brought him back to Sharpsburg, where he was prepared for burial. A few days later, he was going to be brought to Shepherdstown to bury in the Soldier’s Cemetery. His plot will be right beside Redmond Burke, his old Captain. But he’s going to be brought across here by the undertaker, (with) of course his mother and sisters are with that group.

26_They’re going to ride up this hill
They’re going to ride up this hill. At the Entler Hotel, there is a group of Unionists shouting at the undertaker to go back. Beforehand these same people had (gone) to the cemetery and warned the over four hundred mourners there to leave, but they ignored them. They go to the cemetery – once again – there’s a big crowd there. Lots of girls crying and so on. He is buried.

French continues:
Although maybe a year before, Leopold had been a hated person by most Confederates in this area because they heard that he was going to switch sides. By this time, he totally redeemed himself. His conversion to Christianity, his bravery on the scaffold had turned him into a local hero. Later on, that same day, the Unionists would strike. They would come back and would steal the undertaker’s hearse and his horses and ride away with them. Whether he was really guilty of every crime that he was accused is questionable. He wasn’t a guerilla. He was a member of the regular Confederate Cavalry and there’s some question, on the murder of Entler that it might have O’Brien did the shooting.

27_Mary Louise Entler
Mary Louise Entler who lived her life from rebel wild cat to 92-year old wise woman in Shepherdstown at the time she died there March 27, 1932 who carried mail with Leopold and tried to save him, wrote: “His fault was recklessness. He did not stop to consider what might be his fate if caught in the Union lines, and he had run the gauntlet so often without being caught that he became heedless of danger.”

28_he became heedless of danger

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