Finding Books On Home Business

With the growth of internet and commerce, working at home has become extremely popular, as many have found they have the time and energy to work around other family schedules. However, for a person just beginning a new job working from home, it may pay to read about the experiences others have had before making the decision to put an office in the home.

There are many books on home businesses that can help get started and help you through the process of setting up your home office and how to deal with those who do not understand what you do for a living. One of the first books you should look for are those who help you decide if a home business is right for you. Not everyone will be able to operate a home business and if you are the type that requires someone to remind you of deadlines and are happier when someone gives you a task to complete and lets you do it, then a home business may not be right for you.

It requires self discipline to operate a home business and while you may have all the experience needed to do the job you are starting, you may not have the other knowledge to be successful at running your own business. When you work for someone else, there are people that take care of most aspects of the business. Accounting, to handle bills and income as well as supplies and advertising are all parts of any business and while you may not need to be an expert at those positions, reading a few books on home businesses can help you understand what you need to know to be successful.

Having the right equipment in your office will make the paperwork part of running a home business easier and more convenient and a book on organization may be needed. Take a look around the house and the areas that have been in your control. If there are places that may qualify for disaster relief, you will need some help in organizing and setting priorities.
Before you go online to buy books on home businesses, visit your local library or books store and see what others have to say. Many of the offerings online are e books written by people whose only experience in a home business is writing a book on it and selling it online.

Find books by true entrepreneurs who took time and idea, started a business in their home and became successful. Even those who started small stores and grew them into major chains can be of help in developing the business relations that may be important to running a successful home business. While the markets they catered to may be different, their books on home businesses can be adapted to fit most any business model and can show you some of the obstacles you will likely run into as well as tips on removing them.

Obinna Heche. Los Angeles – California

Delivering the best home based business ideas and
opportunities so you can work at home successfully..

Venice, May 2014 – 19
office home business
Image by Ed Yourdon
I was particularly intrigued by the juxtaposition of two generations here — both apparently unaware of the others’ existence. Of course, the two older women in front could not even see who was behind them … but the two young women in the rear seemed to be completely oblivious of the existence of the women in front of them.

To some extent, this was a common theme here in Venice: separate, different generations basically ignoring each other. I suppose the same is true in the U.S., but it seemed much more distinctive here …


I’ve been to Venice once or twice for brief business trips during my life, which had the same characteristics as the business trips I described in a separate Flickr album about Paris — i.e., they basically involve flying into a busy airport at night, taking a taxi to a generic business-traveler’s hotel (a Hilton in Venice looks just like a Hilton in Cairo,except perhaps for the canal outside the main entrance), and then spending several days working in the hotel (if the purpose of the trip was a seminar or computer conference), or at a client’s office (also “generic” in most cases — you can’t even tell what floor you’re on when you get off the elevator, because every floor of “open office” layouts is the same). The trip usually ends in the late afternoon or evening of the final day, with a mad dash back to the airport to catch the last plane home to NYC. Thus, a business trip to Venice is almost indistinguishable from a business trip to Omaha. Or Albany. Or Tokyo.

But Venice is different from almost any other place in the world, and I’ve had a couple of vacation trips to experience that side of the city. But it’s been a long, long time: the first such visit was back in 1976 (which you can see here on Flickr), and the second visit was in 1983 (pictures of which do exist on Flickr, but have been restricted to family-only access, since they consist mostly of boring pictures of drooling babies and kids sticking their collective tongues out at me).

Thirty years is a long time between visits … but for a city like Venice, I doubt that very much has changed. Well, perhaps there wasn’t a McDonald’s outlet in Venice when I first came here (and I did photograph one such outlet on this current visit, which you’ll find in this album), and you can certainly guarantee that people weren’t walking around with cellphones and smartphones the way they are today. And while the tourists typically did have cameras back in the good-old-days, they were typically modest little “Instamatic” film-based gadgets, rather than the big, garish, DSLR cameras that everyone now seems to carry around with them, complete with advertising logos all over the camera-straps and bodies to remind you that they, too, can afford to buy an expensive Canon or Nikon gadget that they really don’t know how to use properly. (Sorry, I got carried away there …)

But the buildings, and the people, and the canals, and the gondolas … all of that is the same. And that’s what I’ve tried to capture in this set of photos. The tourist crowds are now so thick (even in May!) that I didn’t even bother going to the square at San Marco, and I didn’t bother taking any photos from the Rialto bridge over the Grand Canal; but you will see some photos of tourists in this album, along with photos of the local people who are still here …

I don’t expect to come back to Venice again in the next year or two … but if it turns out to be 20 or 30 years before my next return, I suspect it will all look pretty much exactly the same as it did on this trip, and in 1983, and when I first saw it in 1976.

In this video you will learn about what deductions you can claim if you operate your business from home or if you have a home office.

For more information, visit http://www.ato.gov.au/TaxBasicsVideos

Related Office Home Business Articles


Tax Deductions For The Home Business Owner

Tax time can be one of the most anticipated periods of the year. After the holidays have become a memory and before the fun of summer begins, we must devote several hours of our lives to completing this project. This can be especially challenging for the home based business owner. There are several deductions that are available for the work from home individual. These ideas can help reduce your tax burden.

1) Accountant Costs

If you use the services of an accountant, these costs are totally deductible for a work at home business.

2) Advertising Costs

Any amount of money that is spent to advertise an internet business is tax deductible. Business cards, flyers, newspaper ads, internet ads, etc.

3) Bank Fees

All of the bank costs incurred to run a home business are tax deductible.

4) Research And Training Materials

Any educational materials purchased to increase your expertise for developing, maintaining and improving a home based business are a tax deduction. This includes software and E-books.

5) Internet Service Provider

Keep a log of the business hours spent online and personal time on the internet. The business percentage can be taken as a tax deduction against ISP costs per month.

6) Web Hosting Fees

The monthly costs paid to a web host provider for managing an internet business site are deductible.

7) Long Distance Telephone Costs

Keep an accurate account of the amount of money spent for long distance phone calls that relate to a home business.

8) Office Equipment

Your computer, printer, fax machine, answering machine, scanner, furniture, remodeling, etc. are tax deductible when used for a home based business. Some people choose to depreciate the cost over several years or take the entire expense at one time. Your tax situation will determine the decision.

9) Shipping Costs

If you ship products, the amount of money spent for boxes, tape, packing peanuts, bubble wrap, etc. is tax deductible. If you use a personal car to transport packages to the post office, keep a log of the distance traveled.

10) Office Supplies

Paper, stationery, folders, pens, pencils, tape, envelopes, printer ink, address labels, post-its, postage stamps etc. that are used for the operation of a home business are a deduction.

11) Interest Expenses

All of the interest accumulated on credit cards for the development, maintenance and improvement of a home based business is a tax deduction. If you have any loans that were taken out to start a home business, this interest is also tax deductible.

12) Office Space

Rent, taxes, mortgage interest, utilities, phone etc are partly deductible. The area devoted to a home based enterprise must be used exclusively for business purposes and the deduction can only be a percentage of the total house costs based on the amount of space the home business uses. Using one room for an office and another room for packaging your products creates a tax deduction for both rooms.

This is not an all inclusive list of tax deductions for your home business. The IRS has a publication (IRS publication 587: Business Use Of Your Home) that clearly defines all of the allowances that you can take. The best approach for completing your tax return is keeping accurate records. The idea of sacrificing several hours of your time for calculating taxes is not very exciting. Unfortunately, it is a task that all of us must face. Good record keeping within the guidelines of these ideas will develop more time for yourself and less time for the IRS when you begin your return.

“The way to get ahead is to start now.”

John Fortner lives in Oregon and works from his home through his online pursuits. He is the owner of Best-Income Opportunities which offers free information and proven opportunities for creating work at home businesses. To learn more about this topic please visit his website at: http://www.Best-IncomeOpportunities.com To receive free information for starting a home business please go to: http://www.Best-IncomeOpportunities.com/optin.html

Wells Continental Leyland, Maldon c 1979
office home business
Image by sludgegulper
At home in Wantz Road, Maldon, late 70s. WUR855J, the only Leyland in Albert Wells’ fleet. Behind is 3001UK, the ex-Don Everall Duple Continental bodied AEC Reliance which was in the fleet also for a long time. I can now place the redeveloped depot – somewhere around here which was originally the yard and garage of Hall & Son of Maldon, which Wells took over in the late 60s. The site of this photo today looks like this . The house on the left is identifiably still. Sash windows have been removed from the houses and a new estate laid out on the garage and hard standing area.
WUR was acquired when almost new from the strange Beachcomber Holidays Ltd concern which suddenly appeared , registered at an accountant’s office in New London Road, Chelmsford in 1971. The MD was a Trevor (or Terence, I forget) Beanland of Hull. Several second-hand vehicles were acquired, followed by the Duple bodied Leyland Leopard and one,possibly two 12m AEC Reliances. The firm went under shortly afterwards, possibly never having operated any holidays whatsoever. WUR857J spent weeks on end,when brand new, dumped in a public car park in Chelmsford in summer 1971 and Wells obviously snapped up 855 at a nice price. I never saw 856 being operated. (857 was in a white and orange livery) , but 856 eventually passed through the hands of Premier Travel.
Wells retired from business in the late 80s I think, and died in 1999, having operated an eclectic mix of vehicles, mainly lightweight, new and second-hand.
WUR855J was used in a pale yellow and white livery for a long time, later appearing in the firm’s Red and white, and seemed only to perform schools contracts even when new.
A known fleetlist of Beachcomber, during its Mayfly like existence will follow here…..
LHK390J Ford Transit
KNK363G Bedford VAL70 – Duple Northern
JUH376E Bedford VAM14 Duple
WUR855J Leyland Leopard – Duple 53 seater
WUR857J AEC Reliance 6U3ZR – Plaxton 50 seater
SKG709H Bedford VAL70- Plaxton, new to Cavalier, Sutton,later with Norfolk, Nayland
ATU55F Bedford VAL70 – Plaxton, new to Jackson of Altrincham.

(Bus Lists gives WUR856J identical to 857)



6 Reasons To Open An Office Cleaning Business

It may be a good idea to open an office cleaning business. In today’s economic times, it is best to have a plan B. Having your own business will give you something to fall back on in case you lose your job or if the company you work for closes up. I can think of a few other reasons to start your own cleaning business now.

Financial reasons – A good reason to open an office cleaning business if to have financial security. You can’t be sure that you will have a job to go to next week. A part time job or your own small business can make up for lost earnings in case you get laid off or something. You won’t have to worry about where to get money to pay the bills.

Making it big – You can make your business grow and earn more than you thought possible. If you have the time to focus on it, you may even earn more from your part time cleaning business than from your regular day job. You can open an office cleaning business from scratch and start small. If your customers are satisfied with your service, you’ll eventually have more clients.

Earn right away – You can start to earn within a month after you open an office cleaning business. If you had been soliciting clients right away, you can probably get you first client within a week or 2, get your payment at the end of the month. Provide incentives for your client by offering a discount on your next visit if they can refer new clients.

Small capital – You don’t have to purchase expensive heavy duty equipment right away. Like we mentioned earlier, you can start small by doing projects for small companies. You could rent your equipment for your first few projects or get clients that only need small cleaning services that don’t require heavy duty cleaning equipment. Roll back your earnings back into your company to buy more equipment later on.

You’re the boss – For a change, you can give the orders instead of take them. You can have employees to the dirty work while you manage the business. Solicit new projects yourself, offer your people a commission if they get new projects. One thing you should do yourself though is to handle the finances. Never entrust your earnings to an employee.

Set your own time – A big plus to having your own business is you can set your own schedule. Now, you won’t have to drive to work daily or spend most of your waking hours at the office. You can even see your kids grow up with a home based cleaning business. Once you have employees working for you, you can take it easy, wake late and go home early in time for dinner with the family.

Surf the net and find affordable equipment. Learn how to market your cleaning business effectively to get more clients. Crunch some numbers and find out how much you will need to get started. If you don’t think you have enough money, you can find financing elsewhere like from a bank. This is when you will need to prepare a business plan. You will also need to prepare a contract. Get help from people who can give you tips about how to open an office cleaning business.

Russian Prefab Homes
office home business
Image by jurvetson
Concrete blocks stacked into an apartment building.
Sakhalin Island, North of Japan. (The ocean swim at midnight was brisk!)

Their transition from a planned economy was slow, and the U.S. was trying to help with the transition with some business coaching sessions. I met with about 40 entrepreneurs, and few of them had any concept of market competition. If they had a manufacturing permit for rototillers, for example, they wanted to ramp to full production, even though their manufacturing cost was far greater than the sales price of the fully taxed Korean imports. (The sentiment was very different, and more hopeful in the newly independent states in the West, such as Estonia, which I also visited in 1998).

Two oil exploration consortia have spent B on this island over the past decade. So the startups that owned their office real estate have done well.

10 tips to transform any home office into a professional and profitable place of business, from Judy Smith, co-author with her brother Dan Smith of “Business Mojo: Achieving Success Through Mystical Exploration.” (www.BusinessSuccessBook.com)

This video offers advice from the practical, including separating your home office work and personal life to the mystical including Feng Shui and using crystals to attract potential clients..


Increase Your Income Through a Legitimate Home Business – Register It!

Your decision to start a home business must take into consideration the need to secure a business license. Of course, not all home businesses require registration. However, if you want your home business to grow, then you need to protect your business name, register with the appropriate agencies, and pay your taxes.

Advantages of Business Registration

As a legitimate home business entity, you have access to government programs and private projects that help small businesses. Banks and government agencies require registration documents, and your readiness in presenting these documentary requirements will expedite the process of releasing funds and technical support for your business.

As a legitimate home business, you can fully expand your business. You can advertise your services, avail of loans, hire more people, deal with more suppliers and get more customers, pay your taxes, and expand geographically. You can do all these without the niggling fear that, one of these days, the Internal Revenue Service and the Department of Labor, among other government agencies, will uncover your covert operations and confiscate your assets.

Business Registration Using Your Name

When you use your name to bill customers and pay suppliers, you are not required by law to register your business. However, taking your legitimate home business to the next level of partnership and incorporation is definitely easier when you have sole proprietorship records.

The first basic step in home business registration is to visit your County Clerk’s Office. There are zoning ordinances and documentary requirements that you need to comply with, particularly the zoning laws. Otherwise, you have to find another legitimate home business opportunity.

In registering, you can use your social security identification as tax identification. However, it is highly recommended that you secure a separate tax ID for business purposes. You need to avoid giving out sensitive personal information like your social security number to clients and suppliers; the opportunities for fraud at your expense increase the more people know your social security details.

Business Registration under an Assumed Name

When you choose to operate under an assumed name, you should visit the County Clerk’s Office and file for a “Doing Business As” (DBA) registration. You can download the form (X-201) from the Internet or buy from stores. You have to accomplish the form in 3 copies, one each for the County Clerk’s Office, for the bank where you will open your account, and for your office.

The County Clerk’s Office should notify you about the availability of your assumed name; once you stake your claim to it, nobody else can. This process enables you to operate your legitimate home business with a unique name, which is very important in establishing name recall and association.

You also need to put a valid address (no P.O. Boxes allowed) and all the required documents should be notarized. Again, secure separate tax identification and an Employer Identification Number (EIN), especially if you plan to buy goods at wholesale prices, hire employees, and file taxes. These are very essential requirements to make your business grow in the near future.

You can then open a business bank account, which will require your business registration, tax ID, and EIN. After that, you also need to secure a Retail tax Authorization and other licenses and permits required by law.

The process and the documentary requirements might seem circuitous and daunting to a novice like you. However, the advantages of owning a legal and legitimate home business will be well worth the trouble and the effort.

For helpful resources on how to make quick money and how to make money at home, visit BestRetirementAlternatives.com and get a free e-book on RETIREMENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE! They have the best information on how to start and operate for profit your very own legitimate home business.

20_About, five-thirty (AM), he would return
office home business
Image by Jim Surkamp
Andrew Leopold’s Forlorn Hope (2) – by Jim Surkamp With Author Steve French
civilwarscholars.com/?p=13391 5515 words.

by Jim Surkamp on June 19, 2014 in Civilian, Confederate, Jefferson County, Union, Wartime
Andrew Leopold Warmaker To Peacemaker With Steve French, Author “Rebel Chronicles,” contact: info-sfrench52@yahoo.com

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University system, offering a quality, affordable, online education. Interpretations in civilwarscholars.com videos and posts do not in any way reflect modern-day policies and positions of American Public University System. More . . .

Redmond Burke, Andrew Leopold, and Their Gang Descend on The River Towns:
1_Leopold is ordered by General Stuart
2_on “detached service” and, with a small team
3_from Berryville to Shepherdstown
Leopold is ordered by General Stuart to join Redmond Burke on “detached service” and, with a small team, stays behind in the Potomac River area from Berryville to Shepherdstown while the main Confederate Army moves further south. His job is to find conscripts, carry mail between homes and soldiers, steal horses and watch the movements of the Federal army. Leopold in carrying mail, is also enabled to determine the names of, and whereabouts of able-bodied men not enlisted in his Confederate army, such as Jacob Hudson and Charles Entler.

The Wayward Letter:
4_One letter to be delivered that would cause much controversy
(One letter to be delivered that would cause much controversy was a “thank you” note to widow Lily Parran Lee in Shepherdstown. Gen. Stuart had been trying to order a new uniform while at The Bower. He had visited Mrs. Lee, a dear and trusted friend in Shepherdstown. Her husband, William Fitzhugh Lee, died at First Manassas/Bull Run wearing silver spurs Stuart had given him. It seems, according to the letter, that Daniel Rentch, a merchant in Shepherdstown, was commissioned and – did indeed have made – the famed cape that J.E.B. Stuart would wear in the war. It was delivered. In the letter Stuart tells Mrs. Lee to thank Mr. Rentch for the cape. Burke was carrying a letter between Stuart and Mrs. Lee, maybe this one).

Wednesday – November 19, 1862, Dam No. 4 on the Potomac River – Leopold’s First Victim:

5_Leopold’s First Victim
Fearing conscription, Unionist residents hastily relocated across the Potomac into the safety of Maryland. The large family of one Jim Dunn was making such a move across the river near the guard lock of Dam No. 4, wth some pickets from the 12th Pennsylvania Cavalry watching from the Maryland side. Burke’s and Leopold’s gang suddenly appeared and with gunfire broke up the moving, leaving most of Dunn’s family stuck still on the Virginia side. Dunn was stuck on the Maryland side. Dunn asked three local men – Theodore “Mort” Cookus, a farmer with land on the Virginia side, Charles Ridenour and William Colbert – ambling along on the towpath – to help get his family and cargo across the river. After over an hour, the four men re-crossed the Potomac to the Virginia side. Burke and Leopold and others attacked again:

Author French Recounts Leopold’s Firing On “Mort” Cookus:

6_Author French Recounts
Suddenly Burke, Leopold, Hipsley and O’Brien appeared. Leopold shouted to Ridenour, “Halt you Yankee Son-of-a bitch!”. . . He (Ridenour) remembered Cookus crying out, “For God’s sake men, don’t shoot me!” Burke replied, “Surrender or we will surely kill you.” Then almost simultaneously, the captain and Leopold each fired once into the skiff. Cookus, now hit on the left side, jumped into the river. “After Cookus jumped out,” Ridenour later testified, “he swam twelve or fifteen feet and received three more shots. Every time the guns crack, he dodged his head under water. Capt. Burke says don’t kill him. Laypole says I will kill the son of a bitch.” And he did. Union Gen. George Gordon wrote: . . . a brave and plucky fellow named Cookus . . . plunged into the river and struck out vigorously for the Maryland shore. Two-thirds of the way across he was hit by a bullet and sank dead to the bottom of the river. – Gordon, p. 14.
– See more . . .

7_sank dead to the bottom of the river

Author Steve French:

8_they’re all back with Stuart
They are taken to Fort McHenry. The soldiers who are captured – they’re released very soon afterwards, paroled. And by January the first, 1864, they’re all back with Stuart at his camp near Fredericksburg, Virginia. That winter, as soon as he is exchanged and the others are exchanged, they’re back in the service – dispatched service – operating once again in the Shepherdstown/Berryville area, carrying mail back and forth between the citizens and armies, scouting and so on.

March 6, 1863 – Leopold – the Deserter’s Avenger in Shepherdstown:

9_he comes into Shepherdstown with John O’Brien
Author Steve French:
On the night of March the 6th, he comes into Shepherdstown with John O’Brien, and he’s hunting for a man named Jacob Hudson. He finds Hudson caring for his uncle at his house at Shepherdstown. And he knocks on the door with O’Brien. Evidently he doesn’t know Hudson, but Hudson has been talking about him around town. When Hudson opens the door, Leopold asks for Hudson – “Is Hudson in the house?” – Hudson immediately becomes scared and he runs toward the back door and he is shot down. George Brantner, who was a former Confederate soldier, he’s seated right in that room, cannot tell whether it was Leopold or O’Brien who shot the young man, but he sure identifies him later on, because Leopold met Brantner at the door and (Leopold) told him he had mail for him. Leopold will come down the street that night. He will tell one resident (Federal postmaster Elias Baker on German Street-JS) here in the town that he did shoot a man up the street and then they will leave the mail here and head back for camp.

10_Leopold Avenges Again
March 15-16, 1863 – Leopold Avenges Again at the Bridgeport, MD Ferry:
Author French:

11_group of men go to Sharpsburg
12_Charles Entler
Ten days later, on the night of March 15th & 16th, Leopold and a group of men go to Sharpsburg, Maryland, and, in Sharpsburg that night they steal six horses from an oyster wagon, parked outside of a local tavern. After midnight on the 16th, they return to try to get across the river. They go to Bridgeport where the ferry is, directly behind me, and they knock on the door. They say they have a dispatch to take to Harper’s Ferry to (Federal) General Stevenson. The young man, Charles Entler and his friend Samuel Jones, that are in the office that night, sleeping in the office, refuse to answer the door. Finally, Leopold starts tearing the shutters off the windows and Charles decides to come out. Samuel Jones would later say he knew it was Leopold at the door, but he was too scared, too frightened to say a word. As Charles comes out the door, his brother, Luther, who is in the ferry house himself, walks outside; and, as soon as he gets outside, he hears a man shout at his brother:

13_By God, I’m Captain Leopold
14_Charles, nineteen-years-old, runs off and dies
“By God, I’m Captain Leopold and I’ve been looking for you a long time.” Immediately the gunshot goes off, Luther turns, makes haste into his house to get his revolver. His brother, Charles, nineteen-years-old, runs off and dies in the road, going up towards Ferry Hill. Leopold and his men escape. Now, they’re wanted men. The Middletown Valley Register over in Maryland, a few days later, comes out with a long article about Leopold and his band and at the end of it says: “Leopold deserves a hempen collar.” So he’s a wanted man, not only by the authorities in Maryland, but by Union soldiers, especially Major General Robert Milroy, the famous “Grey Eagle,” who was headquartered at that time in Winchester.

April 21-22, 1863 south of Millwood, Va.- Leopold and his team are recaptured:

French continues:
Towards the end of April around April 21st, Union forces are sent out of Berryville and they go to Castleman’s Ferry. That night, they will capture Leopold, and, once again, some of the Burkes – Hipsley and some other men when they surround the house, and they threaten to burn it down, if the Confederates don’t come out.

15_They’re taken to Winchester and put in the Clarke County jail
Author French continues:
They’re taken to Winchester and put in the Clarke County jail. While in that jail, one of Milroy’s citizen spies named Michael Graham from Woodstock, Virginia, talks to Leopold and find out what he wants. Leopold wants to either join the Union Army or be allowed to get out of jail and go to Ohio. In return he will tell Milroy who the scouts and spies are in the lower Shenandoah Valley. He will meet with Milroy, and Milroy will listen to all this, but Leopold plays his hand too fast, and tells Milroy what he needs to know beforehand.

16_brought before Federal Major General Robert Milroy
Leopold (Laypole, Leopole) is brought before Federal Major General Robert Milroy at Winchester, VA and begins bargaining:

Major-General SCHENCK,WINCHESTER, VA., April 25, 1863. Baltimore, Md.: Rebel [Andrew T.] Leopole, the last two days in irons, hoping for leniency, makes this statement:

Residence, Sharpsburg, Md. Enlisted in Confederate service two years ago, as ensign First Regiment Virginia (rebel) Cavalry, and remained in that regiment until Stuart’s appointment as brigadier, about a month after the first battle of Manassas, when I became ensign of his brigade, which I continued to be until last May, when I was transferred to the Virginia Cavalry as third lieutenant. I continued in that regiment until after the battle of Sharpsburg, in September last, when I was promoted to first lieutenant of Company D, same regiment, in which regiment I served until November 24 last, when I was captured at Shepherdstown. I remained a prisoner until January 6 last, when I was exchanged, and reported, as ordered, to General Stuart, at his headquarters, where I remained until January 13, acting as his couriers. On January 14, as ordered by him, I left for Castlemans Ferry, in command of 70 men, where I remained until last Tuesday, when, with 6 of my men, I was captured. My business there was to observe the movements of Federal forces, . . .

NOTE – At this point Leopold appears to be divulging intelligence on Confederate positions to Milroy in hope of leniency – JS:
and report to General Fitzhugh Lee, who is now between Markham Station and Manassas Gap Railroad and the Shenandoah River, about 2 miles east of the Blue Ridge, with the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Tenth Virginia Cavalry and two batteries. Regiments average about 350 men each. The locality of these troops is about 16 miles from Castlemans Ferry and 10 miles from Berrys Ferry. General Trimble, with three infantry brigades, is near Orleans, in Fauquier County. Lee’s and Trimble’s forces moved at the same time from Culpeper Court-House to their present position, where they arrived about two days before my capture. There are two other brigades one from Louisiana and the other from Virginia encamped between Sperryville and Little Washington. They belong to Trimble’s division. With each brigade is a battery, and a battalion of artillery besides, attached to the division. The brigades, I think, will average 1,900 men each. The two brigades near Sperryville came that far with the other brigades, and halted there. I saw Geueral Stuart on the 17th of this month between Salem and Jefferson, and learned from him that A. P. Hill, with a portion of his command, had left for the Valley by way of Hanover Junction, Charlottesville, and Staunton. I saw Hill’s baggage at Culpeper, and learned from the master of transportation that it was en route from Staunton. I heard General Stuart say that the Federal forces at Winchester would be captured as soon as the Shenandoah River became passable. I also learned from his general order book that Jones had been ordered to march to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and destroy certain trestle-work on that road. I am tired of fighting, and wish to take the oath of allegiance and retire into Ohio. I have always stood high with General Stuart, enjoyed his confidence, and, when at his headquarters, ate at his table.

Milroy concludes in this report:
The above statement is strongly corroborated by other circumstances and information. I recommend that Heintzelman be directed to ascertain the truth of the above statement, so far as it refers to Fitzhugh Lees and Trimbles forces and their locality. R. H. MILROY, Major-General. – Letter to Maj. General Robert C. Schenck from Maj. General R. H. Milroy. pp. 252-253.

Author French recaps:
They’re taken to Winchester and put in the Clarke County jail. While in that jail, one of Milroy’s citizen spies named Michael Graham from Woodstock, Virginia, talks to Leopold and finds out what he wants. Leopold wants to either join the Union Army or be allowed to get out of jail and go to Ohio. In return he will tell Milroy who the scouts and spies are in the lower Shenandoah Valley. He will meet with Milroy, and Milroy will listen to all this, but Leopold plays his hand too fast, and tells Milroy what he needs to know beforehand. So Milroy won’t agree to give him his freedom or allow him to switch sides and join the Union Army, but he will pack him to the prison at Fort McHenry.

Fort McHenry, MD – Leopold is not trusted, is tried after much delay and hanged:

French continues:
So Milroy won’t agree to give him his freedom or allow him to switch sides and join the Union Army, but he will pack him to the prison at Fort McHenry.

17_Baker would write that Leopold is not trusted
Captain Joel Baker, the guard, comments that most of the prisoners of the group – there’s about eight or nine in the guard room – most of the prisoners are cultured gentlemen, but not Leopold. Baker would write that Leopold is not trusted by the other prisoners. They think he would sell them out for just a few cents.

Leopold is held in prison until mid-December, 1863, when he is put on trial by a military tribunal. He’s charged with a number of crimes, of being a guerrilla, murderer, violating an act of war, and being a spy. The tribunal is led by Col. W. W. Bates of the 8th New York heavy artillery. The Judge Advocate is Lieutenant Roderick Baldwin. Leopold will represent himself, but he will have the help of a local, Baltimore attorney, Milton Whitney Esq. who was well-known in Baltimore for many years.

18_he will have the help of a local, Baltimore attorney, Milton Whitney Esq.
Author French continues:
The trial opens up. A lot of local residents come from here to Fort McHenry to testify, including Daniel Rentch, Luther Entler, Samuel Jones, other men from Shepherdstown and also General Milroy will appear. The trial will go – on and off – for probably three, almost four, weeks. They break for Christmas a while; they break for different witnesses to arrive. Finally, two charges are dropped, but he is still charged with being a guerrilla and murderer, both capital offences.

19_wasn’t a guerilla, that he was a Confederate soldier
His defense rests on that he wasn’t a guerilla, that he was a Confederate soldier, especially dispatched into this area by J.E.B. Stuart. Also, he refused to admit that he had murdered Charles Entler. He said he didn’t have anything more to do with the murder of that young boy than any of the judges on the tribunal; and, he said the shooting of Cookus was just part of a local skirmish. So he denied being a guerrilla; he denied being a murderer.

In his summation, Lt. Baldwin, the Judge Advocate, would say: we owe something to the people of the border who have been hounded from their home, who have been murdered at their doorstep. We need to protect them.

The verdict comes back. He is convicted of murder: the murder of Entler, the murder of Cookus – and he is convicted of being a guerilla. Afterwards, the verdict and the results of the trial – goes up through the chain of command. Finally, they reach that April, Judge Advocate Joseph Holt. Holt reviews all capital cases for Abraham Lincoln. In a four-page review, Holt will say this man has been convicted of these crimes and he deserves the death penalty. In late April, 1864, Abraham Lincoln will sign off on that.

French continues:
At that time, Leopold is taken from the guard room, shackled. He’s put in a cell, still in the inner fort, but not with the rest of the men on death row. During that month, there is a big escape from the guard room at Fort McHenry. William Boyd Compton leads the rest of the men in the escape and they all eventually get back to the Confederate lines.

On the evening of April the 22nd, Leopold will be informed by his chaplain, Doctor Reese, that his execution will be the next morning. He will meet with Reese that evening for prayer and communion. During the winter, Leopold would become a committed Christian. He studied the Bible frequently. He had another small book that he would study. They had prayer. Reese left for a while.

20_About, five-thirty (AM), he would return
About, five-thirty (AM), he would return. Once again, they would talk of the afterlife. Then he (Leopold) would go out under guard, get on the wagon atop his coffin, and he would ride to the execution site right outside the walls.

21_Robert Baylor of Charlestown was also a prisoner
Captain Robert Baylor of Charlestown was also a prisoner at Fort McHenry at the time. He was out on the grounds of the fort and as he passed Baylor, Leopold would wave to Baylor and said: “Tell the boys I remain true to the cause.” As they neared the execution site, he could see the soldiers of the fort lined up on three sides of the gallows. The gallows there could have four executions at the time.

22_Lew Wallace was there, later on the author of “Ben Hur.”
(Federal) Major General Lew Wallace was there, later on the author of “Ben Hur.” He was the commander-in-chief of the Eighth Corps Middle Department, and Brig. General W. W. Morris, the sixty-six year old commander of Fort McHenry was also there.

23_Leopold pointed to Gen. Morris and said
24_The hood was put on his neck
He was helped off the wagon. The reporter for “The Baltimore American” said that “Leopold went up the steps firm and undaunted.” Once atop the scaffold, he was asked for any last words and Leopold pointed to Gen. Morris and said: “Old man, you’re the reason I’m here. But I’ll forgive and I’ll meet you in Heaven.” After that, he stepped back. The hood was put on his neck by Private Elijah Brown, and then the rope put around his neck.

25_Leopold dropped into eternity
Just afterwards, Morris gave the signal, and then – Leopold dropped into eternity. He would hang there for about twenty minutes before the soldiers took him down. There were friends there in Baltimore, some of Leopold’s friends. They brought him back to Sharpsburg, where he was prepared for burial. A few days later, he was going to be brought to Shepherdstown to bury in the Soldier’s Cemetery. His plot will be right beside Redmond Burke, his old Captain. But he’s going to be brought across here by the undertaker, (with) of course his mother and sisters are with that group.

26_They’re going to ride up this hill
They’re going to ride up this hill. At the Entler Hotel, there is a group of Unionists shouting at the undertaker to go back. Beforehand these same people had (gone) to the cemetery and warned the over four hundred mourners there to leave, but they ignored them. They go to the cemetery – once again – there’s a big crowd there. Lots of girls crying and so on. He is buried.

French continues:
Although maybe a year before, Leopold had been a hated person by most Confederates in this area because they heard that he was going to switch sides. By this time, he totally redeemed himself. His conversion to Christianity, his bravery on the scaffold had turned him into a local hero. Later on, that same day, the Unionists would strike. They would come back and would steal the undertaker’s hearse and his horses and ride away with them. Whether he was really guilty of every crime that he was accused is questionable. He wasn’t a guerilla. He was a member of the regular Confederate Cavalry and there’s some question, on the murder of Entler that it might have O’Brien did the shooting.

27_Mary Louise Entler
Mary Louise Entler who lived her life from rebel wild cat to 92-year old wise woman in Shepherdstown at the time she died there March 27, 1932 who carried mail with Leopold and tried to save him, wrote: “His fault was recklessness. He did not stop to consider what might be his fate if caught in the Union lines, and he had run the gauntlet so often without being caught that he became heedless of danger.”

28_he became heedless of danger

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Home Business Opportunities: Stay at Home and Earn With Less Stress

Working at home is still a pretty much new phenomenon which not a lot of people are bold enough to try. Many still seem to assume that home businesses are only for part-time and should not be considered as a full-time job. Because of this, home business opportunities slip away unbeknown.

In truth, home businesses have a lot of benefits over office work.

For one thing, grabbing a home business opportunity and working at home means that you would no longer have to commute or drive to work every day. That would not only save you gas or fare money, it would also save you time. Traveling to and from the office takes time; and depending on how far you are from the office, it could take as much as an hour or two away from your life every single day.

And if you commute or drive to work, that means you wake up at least 30 minutes before the time it takes you to commute or drive. This means you probably wake up an hour and thirty minutes before office hours. So if your office hours start at 7am, you’ll have to wake up at about 5.30am!

Just imagine if you could have those whole two hours for yourself – if you only have to wake up thirty minutes before work to eat breakfast and turn on your PC. That cold give you an hour and thirty minutes more to sleep in!

Another perk of working at home is that you wouldn’t need to worry about your food and coffee. During lunch time or coffee break, you can simply walk to your kitchen and cook something up or make yourself a cup of coffee. This way, your work allowance would drop dramatically and your earnings would go a longer way.

The next time you’re offered a home business opportunity, you may want to grab it. Home-based jobs may be unconventional but it may actually be the best thing you can do for yourself and career.

If he isn’t spending time with his dog, Sam, Jeremy Longtrain writes articles on home business opportunities. If you’d like to take advantage of a home business opportunity yourself, read his articles to learn more and avoid being scammed.

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Overall view of my home computer’s cord management. My personal PC is the one on the right. The one on the left (business PC) is there only temporarily and the cables aren’t that neatly organized.

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